Training Activity References:
2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey and Key Prevalence Indicators. CDC Website. 2007.
Abulhosh RS, Morray BH, Llewellyn CE, Redding GJ. Passive smoke exposure impairs recovery after hospitalization for acute asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997; 151: 135-139.
Ahijevych KL, Tyndale RF, Dhatt RK, Weed HG, Browning KK. Factors influencing cotinine half-life during smoking abstinence in African American and Caucasian women. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002; 4(4): 423-431.
Ahluwalia JS, Harris KJ, Catley D, Okuyemi KS, Mayo MS. Sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation in African Americans: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002; 288(4): 468-474.
Alcohol and Tobacco. Alcohol Research & Health. 2001; Vol 24, No 4: . Accessed on: 2010-08-12.
Allen KF, Moss AJ, Giovino GA, Shopland DR, Pierce JP. Teenage tobacco use: data estimates from the Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey, US, 1989. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics. 1992.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs: the role of the pediatrician in prevention and management of substance abuse. Pediatrics. 1998; 101(1): 125-128.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG educational bulletin number 249. Confidentiality in adolescent health care. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998; 63(3): 295-300.
American Heart Association. Heart and stroke facts. American Heart Association Website. 2003. Accessed on: 2004-12-15.
American Lung Association. American Lung Association fact sheet: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). American Lung Association Website. 2002. Accessed on: 2003-01-14.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed, Text Revision. Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Association. 2000.
Anto JM, Vermeire P, Vestbo J, Sunyer J. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2001; 17(5): 982-994.
Antsey K, Sanden C, Salim A, et al.. Smoking as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis of
Prospective Studies. Am J Epidemiol.
2007; 166(4): 367-378. Available at: http://www.while-science-sleeps.com/pdf/643.pdf
Accessed on: 2014-10-21.
Arday DR, Lapin P, Chin J, Preston JA. Smoking patterns among seniors and the Medicare stop smoking program. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50(10): 1689-1697.
Baer Wilson D, Nietert PJ. Patterns of fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption among smoking and nonsmoking female teens. Am J Prev Med.
2002. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11988380
Accessed on: 2010-06-01.
Bain C, Feskanich D, Speizer FE, et al. Lung cancer rates in men and women with comparable histories of smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96(11): 826-834.
Balch GI. Communicating with teens: some lessons from commercial marketing. Tob Control. 2000; 9(suppl 1): i52.
Barbieri RL. The initial fertility consultation: recommendations concerning cigarette smoking, body mass index, and alcohol and caffeine consumption. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185(5): 1168-1173.
Barnoya J, Glantz SA. Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: nearly as large as smoking. Circulation. 2005; 111(20): 2684-2698.
Benninger MS. The impact of cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke on nasal and sinus disease: a review of the literature. Am J Rhinol. 1999; 13(6): 435-438.
Benowitz NL, Dempsey DA, Goldenberg RL, et al. The use of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Tob Control. 2000; 9(suppl 3): iii91-iii94.
Bergman JA, Falit JL. Non-smoking policies, tobacco education, and smoking cessation programmes in facilities serving the elderly in Michigan, United States. Tobacco Control. 1997; 6(3): 194-8.
Bernstein M, Morabia A, Hotier S, Katchatian N. Passive smoking, active smoking, and education: their relationship to weight history in women in Geneva. Am J Public Health. 1996; 86: 1267-1272.
Biener L, Siegel MB. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion in smoking initiation. US Dept of Health and Human Services. Smoking and tobacco control monograph #14: changing adolescent smoking prevalence.
2001. Available at: http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/monographs/
Accessed on: 2003-01-19.
Brayne C. Smoking and the brain: no good evidence exists that smoking protects against dementia. Br Med J. 2000; 320(7242): 1087-1088.
Breslau N, Johnson EO. Predicting smoking cessation and major depression in nicotine-dependent smokers. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(7): 1122-1127.
Breslau N, Kilbey MM, Andreski P. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms and psychiatric disorders: findings from an epidemiologic study of young adults. Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149: 464-469.
Bricker JB, Leroux BG, Peterson AV Jr, Kealey KA, Sarason IG, Andersen MR, Marek PM.. Nine-year prospective relationship between parental smoking cessation and children's daily smoking. Addiction.
2003 ; 98(5): 585-93. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751972
Burns DM. Cigarette smoking among the elderly: disease consequences and the benefits of cessation. Am J Health Promotion. 2000; 14(6): 357-61.
Burt RD, Peterson AV. Smoking cessation among high school seniors. Prev Med. 1998; 27(3): 319-327.
Butler C, Rollnick S, Cohen D, Russell I, Bachmann M, Stott N. Motivational counseling versus brief advice for smokers in general practice: a randomized trial. Br J Gen Pract. 1999; 49: 611-616.
Caraballo RS, Giovino GA, Pechacek TF, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in serum cotinine levels of cigarette smokers. JAMA. 1998; 280: 135-139.
Carey KB. Substance use reduction in the context of outpatient psychiatric treatment: a collaborative, motivational, harm reduction approach. Community Mental Health Journal. 1996; 32: 291-306.
Carlsson CM, Stein JH. Cardiovascular disease and the aging woman: overcoming barriers to lifestyle changes. Current Women's Health Reports. 2002; 2(5): 366-372.
Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention. Record number of Wisconsin senior smokers quit through Wisconsin Tobacco Quit Line Program . Press Release. 2003.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs -- United States, 1995-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.. 2002a; 51(14): 300-303.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults -- United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(20): 427-431.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults -- United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2005; 54(20): 509-513.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults -- United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2006; 55(42): 1145-1148.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults -- United States, 2005–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2007; 65(44): 1233-1240.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults -- United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2008; 57(45): 1221-1226.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking-attributable morbidity -- United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003; 52(35): 842-4.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette use among high school students -- United States, 1991-2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(23): 499-502.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette Use Among High School Students --- United States, 1991--2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
2004a; 200;53(23): 499-502. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5323a1.htm
Accessed on: 2006-02-23.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States. Smoking and Tobacco Use. CDCP Website. Content source: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
2016; December 1: . Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/
Accessed on: 2017-01-09.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking & Tobacco Use. CDC Website.
2003. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/
Accessed on: 2010-06-15.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco information and prevention source home page. CDC Website.
2003b. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/
Accessed on: 2003-08-11.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco use among middle and high school students -- United States, 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2003a; 52(45): 1096-1098.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth tobacco surveillance -- United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2001; 50(SS04): 1-84.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Tobacco Surveillance Survey -- United States, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001; 50: 1-46.
Cervilla JA, Prince M, Mann A. Smoking, drinking, and incident cognitive impairment: a cohort community based study included in the Gospel Oak Project. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2000; 68(5): 622-626.
Chantix (varenicline) may increase the risk of certain cardiovascular adverse events in patients with cardiovascular disease. FDA Safety Communication.
2011. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm259161.htm
Accessed on: 2011-07-05.
Chen X, Unger JB, Johnson CA. Is acculturation a risk factor for early smoking initiation among Chinese American minors? A comparative perspective.. Tob Control. 1999; 8(4): 402-410.
Choi WS, Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Berry CC. Which adolescent experimenters progress to established smoking in the United States?. Am J Prev Med. 1997; 13(5): 385-391.
Christakis DA, Garrison MM, Ebel BE, Wiehe SE, Rivara FP. Pediatric smoking prevention interventions delivered by care providers. A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2003; 25: 358-362.
Christakis DA, Garrison MM, Ebel BE, Wiehe SE, Rivera FP. Smoking cessation interventions for adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2003; 25(4): 363-367.
Cigarette Smoking Among Adults and Trends in Smoking Cessation --- United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2009; 58(44): 1227-1232.
Clayton S. Gender differences in psychosocial determinants of adolescent smoking. J School Health. 1991; 61(3): 115-120.
Clemente ML, P?rez A, Rubio E, Marr?n R, Rodr?guez ML, Herrero I. A version of DSM-IV criteria adapted for adolescents and applied to young smokers. Archivos de Bronconeumologia. 2003; 39(7): 303-309.
Cohen S, Lichtenstein E, Mermelstein R, McIntyre-Kingsolver K, Baer JS, Kamarck TW. Social support interventions for smoking cessation. Gottlieb BH, ed. Marshalling Social Support: Formats, Processes, and Effects. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage. 1988.
Connolly MJ. Smoking cessation in old age: closing the stable door?. Age and Ageing. 2000; 29(3): 193-195.
Coulson NS, Eiser C, Eiser JR.. Diet, smoking and exercise: interrelationships between adolescent health behaviours. Child Care Health Dev.
1997. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9158910
Accessed on: 2010-06-01.
Coward R. Using the transtheoretical model in guiding smoking cessation. Nurse Practitioner. 1999; 24(2): 146-150.
Dale LC, Glover ED, Sachs DP, et al. Bupropion for smoking cessation: predictors of successful outcome. Chest. 2001; 119(5): 1357-1364.
Dale LC, Olsen DA, Patten CA, et al. Predictors of smoking cessation among elderly smokers treated for nicotine dependence. Tobacco Control. 1997; 6(3): 181-187.
Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy. Drug Saf. 2001; 24: 277-322.
Dent C, Biglan A. Relation between access to tobacco and adolescent smoking. Tob Control. 2004; 13(4): 334-338.
Dierker LC, Avenevoli S, Merikangas KR, Flaherty BP, Stolar M. Association between psychiatric disorders and the progression of tobacco use behaviors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001; 40(10): 1159-1167.
DiFranza JR, Lew RA. Morbidity and mortality in children associated with the use of tobacco products by other people. Am Acad Pediatr. 1996; 97(4): 560-568.
DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, et al. Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the development and assessment of nicotine dependence in youths (DANDY) study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002; 156: 397-403.
DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Rigotti NA, et al. Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study. Tob Control. 2002b; 11: 228-235.
DiFranza JR, Savageau JA,, Fletcher K, et al. Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the development and assessment of nicotine dependence in youths (DANDY) study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002a; 156: 397-403.
Dino GA, Horn KA, Goldcamp J, Fernandes A, Kalsekar I, Massey C. A 2-year efficacy study of Not On Tobacco in Florida: an overview of program successes in changing teen smoking behavior. Prev Med. 2001; 33(6): 600-605.
Dino GA, Horn KA, Meit H. A pilot study of Not On Tobacco: a stop smoking programme for adolescents. Health Education. 1998; 6: 230-241.
Doherty DE. Early detection and management of COPD. What you can do to reduce the impact of this disabling disease. Postgrad Med. 2002; 111(6): 41-44, 49-50, 53.
Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Smoking and dementia in male British doctors: prospective study. Br Med J. 2000; 320(7242): 1097-1102.
Drug Facts and Comparisons. Drug Facts and Comparisons 2008.. St. Louis, MO. Facts and Comparisons. 2008.
Drug Facts and Comparisons. Drug Facts and Comparisons, 2003. St. Louis, Mo: Facts and Comparisons. 2003.
Dunn C, Deroo L, Rivara FP. The use of brief interventions adapted from motivational interviewing across behavioural domains: a systematic review. Addiction. 2001; 96(12): 1725-1742.
Durcan MJ, Deener G, White J, et al. The effect of bupropion sustained-release on cigarette craving after smoking cessation. Clinical Therapeutics. 2002; 24(4): 540-551.
Eissenberg T, Balster RL. Initial tobacco use episodes in children and adolescents: current knowledge, future directions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2000; 59(supp 1): S41-S60.
Ellickson PL, Orlando M, Tucker JS, Klein, DJ. From adolescence to young adulthood: racial/ethnic disparities in smoking.. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(2): 293-299.
Emmons K, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing in health care settings. Opportunities and limitations. Am J Prev Med. 2001; 20(1): 68-74.
Epstein JA, Griffin KW, Botvin GJ. Competence skills help deter smoking among inner city adolescents. Tobacco Control. 2000; 9(1): 33-39.
Evatt DP, Kassel JD. Smoking, arousal, and affect: The role of anxiety sensitivity
. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.
2010; 24: 114-123. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819669
Accessed on: 2014-11-20.
Farrelly MC, Niederdeppe J, Yarsevich J. Youth tobacco prevention mass media campaigns: past, present, and future directions. Tob Control. 2003; 12(supp 1): i35-i47.
Federal Trade Commission. Cigarette Report for 2003. https://www.ftc.gov/reports/annual-report-congress-regarding-operation-hart-scott-rodino-premerger-notification-progra-1. 2005. Accessed on: 2006-04-21.
Fertig JB. Overview-alcohol and tobacco: mechanisms and treatment. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. 2002; 26(12): 1909-1910.
Fidler W, Lambert TW. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people. Tob Control. 2001; 10: 23-26.
Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Rockville, Md: Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 2000.
Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. May 2008.
Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Pierce JP, et al. Methods used to quit smoking in the United States: do cessation programs help?. JAMA. 1990; 263(20): 2760-2765.
Froom P, Melamed S, Benbassat J. Smoking cessation and weight gain. J Fam Pract. 1998; 46(6): 460-464.
Gaufberg, SV. Abruptio Placentae. Harvard Medical School, Cambridge Health Alliance. 2001.
Gergen PJ, Fowler JA, Maurer KR, Davis WW, Overpeck MD. The burden of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on the respiratory health of children 2 months through 5 years of age in the United States: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Pediatrics [serial online].
1998. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/101/2/e8.short
Accessed on: 2004-01-05.
Gidwani PP, Sobol A, DeJong W, Perrin JM, Gortmaker SL. Television viewing and initiation of smoking among youth. Pediatrics. 2002; 110(3): 505-508.
GlaxoSmithKline. Nicotine Lozenge [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC. 2002.
Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M, et al. Varenciline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 296(1): 47-55.
Gonzales D, Rennard SI,, Nides M, et al. Varenciline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 296(1): 47-55.
Gourlay SG, Benowitz NL. The benefits of stopping smoking and the role of nicotine replacement therapy in older patients. Drugs and Aging. 1996; 9(1): 8-23.
Grant BF, Hasin DS, Chou SP, et al. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61(11): 1107-1115.
Greenland S, Satterfield MH, Lanes SF. A meta-analysis to assess the incidence of adverse effects associated with the transdermal nicotine patch. Drug Safety. 1998; 18(4): 297-308.
Griesler PC, Kandel DB. Ethnic differences in correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. J Adolesc Health. 1998; 23(3): 167-180.
Gutschoven K, Van den Bulck J. Television viewing and smoking volume in adolescent smokers: a cross-sectional study. Prev Med. 2004; 39(6): 1093-1098.
Haddock CK, Weg MV, DeBon M, et al. Evidence that smokeless tobacco use is a gateway for smoking initiation in young adult males. Preventive Medicine. 2001; 32: 262-267.
Haiman, CA, Stram DO, Wilken LR, et al. Ethnic and racial differences in the smoking-related risk of lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006; 354(4): 333-342.
Hampl JS, Betts NM. Cigarette use during adolescence: effects on nutritional status. Nutr Rev. 1999; 57(7): 215-221.
Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerström KO. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict. 1991; 86(9): 1119-1127.
Herrera N, Franco R, Herrera L, Partidas A, Rolando R, Fagerstrom KO. Nicotine gum, 2 and 4 mg, for nicotine dependence: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial within a behavior modification support program. Chest. 1995; 108: 447-451.
Higgins MW, Enright PL, Kronmal RA, Schenker MB, Anton-Culver H, Lyles M. Smoking and lung function in elderly men and women. The Cardiovascular Health Study. JAMA. 1993; 269(21): 2741-2748.
Higgins S. Smoking in pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 14(2): 145-151.
Hillier V, Salib E. A case-control study of smoking and Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997; 12(3): 295-300.
Horn K, Dino G, Kalsekar I, Massey CJ, Manzo-Tennant K, McGloin T. Exploring the relationship between mental health and smoking cessation: a study of rural teens. Prev Sci. 2004; 5(2): 113-126.
How to help your patients stop smoking- a National Cancer Institute manual for physicians. Smoking and Tobacco Control Program, National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, MD. 1998.
Hurt RD, Croghan GA, Beede SD, Wolter TD, Croghan IT, Patten CA. Nicotine patch therapy in 101 adolescent smokers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000; 154: 31-37.
Husten CG, Shelton DM, Chrismon JH, et al. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among older adults: United States 1965-94. Tobacco Control. 2007; 6(3): 175-80.
Ingersoll KS, Wagner CC, Gharib S. Motivational groups for community substance abuse programs. Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. 2000.
Ingersoll KS, Wagner CC, Gharib S. Motivational groups for community substanceabuse programs. Mid-Atlantic Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Richmond, VA. 2000.
Jason LA, Pokorny SB, Kunz C, Adams M. Maintenance of community change: enforcing youth access to tobacco laws. J Drug Educ. 2004; 34(2): 105-119.
Jensen EX, Fusch CH, Jaeger P, et al. Impact of chronic cigarette smoking on body composition and fuel metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80: 2181-2185.
Jim-Ruiz CA, Masa F, Miravitlles M. Smoking characteristics: differences in attitudes and dependence between healthy smokers and smokers with COPD. Chest. 2001; 119(5): 1365-1370.
Jo YH, Talmage DA, Role LW. Nicotinic receptor-mediated effects on appetite and food intake. J Neurobiol. 2002; 53(4): 618-632.
Johnson JG, Cohen P, Pine DS, Klein DF, Kasen S, Brook J. Association between smoking and anxiety disorders during adolescence and early adulthood. JAMA. 2000; 284(18): 2348-2351.
Johnson PB, Richter L. The relationship between smoking, drinking, and adolescents' self-perceived health and frequency of hospitalization: analyses from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. J Adolesc Health. 2002; 30: 175-183.
Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2001, 1: Secondary School Students. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIH Publication 04-5507. 2004.
Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001. Bethesda, Md: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Publication 02-5105. 2002b.
Join Together. Medicare to pay for smoking cessation. Join Together. 2005.
Jorenby DE, Hays JT, Rigotti NA, et al. Efficacy of varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs placebo or sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 296(1): 56-63.
Joseph AM, Norman SM, Ferry LH, et al. The safety of transdermal nicotine as an aid to smoking cessation in patients with cardiac disease. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335(24): 1792-1798.
Juliard JM, Golmard JL, Himbert D, et al.. Comparison of hospital mortality during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of reperfusion therapy in women versus men and in older versus younger patients. Am J Cardiol.
2013; 111(12): 1708-13. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23523063
Accessed on: 2014-10-14.
Kaestner W, Anderson K. Effects of physical activity on clinical depression. J N Med. 1983; 74: 8-16.
Kandel D, Yamaguchi K. From beer to crack: developmental patterns of drug involvement. Am J Public Health. 1993; 83(6): 851-855.
Kandel DB, Kiros GE, Schaffran C, Hu MC. Racial/ethnic differences in cigarette smoking initiation and progression to daily smoking: a multilevel analysis. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(1): 128-135.
Kelly SP, Thornton J, Lyratzopoulos G, Edwards R, Mitchell P. Smoking and blindness. Br Med J. 2004; 328(7439): 537-8.
King G, Polednak A, Bendel RB, Vilsaint MC, Nahata SB. Disparities in smoking cessation between African Americans and whites: 1990-2000. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(11): 1965-1971.
Klesges LM, Johnson KC, Somes G, Zbikowski S, Robinson L. Use of nicotine replacement therapy in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003; 157: 517-522.
Kubik MY, Lytle LA, Birnbaum AS, Murray DM, Perry CL. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in young adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2003; 27(5): 546-553.
Lando HA, Pirie PL, Hellerstedt WL, McGovern PG. Survey of smoking patterns, attitudes, and interest in quitting. Am J Prev Med. 1991; 7(1): 18-23.
Landrine H, Richardson JL, Klonoff EA, Flay B. Cultural diversity in the predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking: the relative influence of peers. J Behav Med. 1994; 17(3): 331-346.
Lasser K, Boyd JW, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Bor DH. Smoking and mental illness: a population-based prevalence study. JAMA. 2000; 284(20): 2606-2610.
Lee PN. Difficulties in assessing the relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 1998; 7(2): 137-163.
Lee PN. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Neuroepidemiology. 1994; 13(4): 131-144.
Lerman, C., Niaura, R., Collins, B.N., Wileyto, P., Audrain-McGovern, J., Pinto, A. et al. . Effect of bupropion on depression symptoms in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Psychol Addict Behav . 2004; 18: 362-366.
Leshner AI. Frontiers in neuroscience: the science of substance abuse: addiction is a brain disease, and it matters. Science. 1997; 278: 45-47.
Lindblom, E. Comprehensive statewide tobacco prevention programs save money. Washington, DC: Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 2005.
Lloyd-Richardson EE, Papandonatos G, Kazura A, Stanton C, Niaura R. Differentiating stages of smoking intensity among adolescents: stage-specific psychological and social influences. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002; 70(4): 998-1009.
Makikyro TH, Hakko HH, Timonen MJ, et al. Smoking and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients. J Adolesc Health. 2004; 34: 250-253.
Mannino DM. COPD: epidemiology, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, and disease heterogeneity. Chest. 2002; 121(suppl 5): 121S-126S.
Marcus BH, Albrecht AE, Niaura RS, et al. Usefulness of physical exercise for maintaining smoking cessation in women. Ann Rev Public Health. 1998; 16: 73-99.
Marlatt GA. Harm reduction: come as you are. Addict Behav. 1996; 21: 779-88.
Martin CA, Kelly TH , Rayens MK, Brogli BR , Brenzel A , Smith WJ , Omar HA. Sensation seeking, puberty, and nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002; 41: 1495-1502.
Mathews TJ. Smoking during pregnancy -- United States, 1990-2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2004; 53(39): 911-915.
Mathews TJ. Smoking during pregnancy, 1990-1996. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 1998; 47(10): 1-12.
McAfee T, Ludman E, Grothaus L, et al. Physician tobacco advice to preteens in a smoking-prevention randomized trial: steering clear. J Pediatr Psychol. 2005; 30(4): 371-376.
McBride CM, Curry SJ, Grothaus LC, Nelson JC, Lando H, Pirie PL. Partner smoking status and pregnant smoker's perceptions of support for and likelihood of smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 1998; 17(1): 63-69.
McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993; 270: 2207-2212.
McGraw SA, Smith KW, Schensul JJ, Carrillo JE. Sociocultural factors associated with smoking behavior by Puerto Rican adolescents in Boston. Soc Sci Med. 1991; 33(12): 1355-1364.
McMahon RJ. Child and adolescent psychopathology as risk factors for subsequent tobacco use. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 1999; 1(suppl 2): 45-50.
McNeill A, Foulds J, Bates C. Regulation of nicotine replacement therapies (NRT): a critique of current practice. Addiction. 2001; 96(12): 1757-1768.
McNeill AD, Jarvis M, West R. Subjective effects of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Psychopharmacology. 1987; 92(1): 115-117.
Mecklenburg AG, Christen AG, Gerbert B, et al. How to Help Your Patients Stop Using Tobacco. A National Cancer Institute Manual for the Oral Health Team. Smoking and Tobacco Control Program, National Cancer Institute, US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. 1998.
Medical Economics Company. Physicians' Desk Reference. 55th ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company. 2001.
Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.
1999. Available at: http://www.ct.gov/dmhas/lib/dmhas/publications/mhethnicity.pdf
Accessed on: 2010-08-11.
Mermelstein R. Ethnicity, gender and risk factors for smoking initiation: an overview. Nicotine Tob Res. 1999; 1(suppl 2): S39-S43, S69-S70.
Michaud PA, Narring F, Cauderay M, Cavadini C. Physical fitness and sport activity of children and adolescents: methodological aspects of a regional survey.. Soz Praventivmed.
1999. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10407952
Accessed on: 2010-06-01.
Miller W. Motivational interviewing with problem drinkers. Behav Psychol. 1983; 11: 147-172.
Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York, NY; Guilford Press. 1991.
Miyata G, Meguid MM, Fetissov SO, Torelli GF, Kim HJ. Nicotine's effect on hypothalamic neurotransmitters and appetite regulation. Surgery. August 1999; 126(2): 255-263.
Molander L, Hansson A, Lunell E. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in healthy elderly people. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001; 69(1): 57-65.
Moolchan ET, Schroeder JR. Quit attempts among African American teenage smokers seeking treatment: gender differences. Prev Med. 2004; 39(6): 1180-1186.
Moore MJ. The Transtheoretical Model of the Stages of Change and the Phases of Transformative Learning. Journal of Transformative Education.
2005; 3: 394-415. Available at: http://jtd.sagepub.com/content/3/4/394.short
Accessed on: 2014-09-18.
Morales-Suarez-Varela MM, Bille C, Christensen K, Olsen J. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 107(1): 51-57.
Morales-Suarez-Varela, Bille, Christensen, Olsen. Smoking habits, nicotine use and congenital malformations. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Jan 2006.
Mullen PD. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and evidence-based intervention to promote cessation. In: Spangler JG, ed. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders. 1999.
National Cancer Institute. Prevention and cessation of cigarette smoking: control of tobacco use. National Cancer Institute Website. 2003. Accessed on: 2003-05-26.
National Cancer Institute. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph #10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: The Report of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Bethesda Md: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Dept of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication 99-4645. 1999.
National Cancer Institute. Third International Conference on Smokeless Tobacco: Advancing Science & Protecting Public Health, Summary Report. Bethesda, Md: Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute. August 2003b.
National Center for Health Statistics. Early Release of Selected Estimates Based on Data From the January-March 2004 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services.
2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/200409_08.pdf
National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2007 with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics. 2007.
Nezami E, Sussman S, Pentz MA. Motivation in tobacco use cessation research. Substance Use & Misuse. 2003; 38(1): 25-50.
Niaura RS, Marcus B, Abrams D. Exercise, smoking cessation, and short-term changes in serum lipids in women: a preliminary investigation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998; 30(9): 1414-1418.
Niederdeppe J, Lindsey D, Firlando ME, Ulasevich A, Farrelly MC. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages among teens and young adults: results from three national surveys. Tobacco Control. Surveys and Program Evaluations from Outside UCSF. Paper FLR12. 2003. Accessed on: 2006-05-23.
Nigg CR, Burbank PM, Padula C, et al. Stages of change across ten health risk behaviors for older adults. Gerontologist. 1999; 39(4): 473-82.
Obach RS, Reed-Hagen AE, Krueger SS, Obach BJ, et al. Metabolism and disposition of varenicline, a selective alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006; 34: 121-30.
Ockene I, Miller N. Cigarette smoking, cardiovascular disease, and stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation.
1997; 96: 3243-3247. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/96/9/3243.full
Accessed on: 2003-03-19.
Ogden J. Effects of smoking cessation, restrained eating and motivational states on food intake in the laboratory. Health Psychol. 1994; 13: 249-251.
Okuyemi KS, Ebersole-Robinson M, Nazir N, Ahluwalia JS. African-American menthol and nonmenthol smokers: differences in smoking and cessation experiences. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004; 96: 1208-1211.
Orleans CT. Reducing tobacco harms among older adults: a critical agenda for tobacco control. Tobacco Control. 1997; 6(3): 161-3.
Orleans CT. Smoking cessation in primary care settings. N J Med. 1988; 85(2): 116-126.
Ossip-Klein DJ, McIntosh S, Utman C, Burton K, Spada J, Guido J. Smokers ages 50+: who gets physician advice to quit? . Prev Med. 2000; 31(4): 364-9.
Ossip-Klein DJ, Pearson TA, McIntosh S, Orleans CT. Smoking is a geriatric health issue. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 1999; 1(4): 299-300.
Ott A, Slooter AJ, Hofman A. Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 1998; 351(9119): 1840-1843.
Parsons A, Daley A, Begh R, et al.. Influence of smoking cessation after diagnosis of early stage lung cancer on prognosis: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. BMJ.
2010. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20093278
Accessed on: 2014-10-16.
Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Am J Public Health.
1996. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8916523
Accessed on: 2010-06-01.
PDR Staff. Physician's Desk Reference. Thomson Healthcare. 2003.
Pechmann C, Zhao G, Goldberg ME, Reibling ET. What to convey in antismoking advertisements for adolescents? The use of protection motivation theory to identify effective message themes. J Marketing. 2003; 67: 1-18.
Perkins KA, Levine MD, Levine MD, Marcus MD, Shiffman S. Addressing women's concerns about weight gain due to smoking cessation. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1997; 14(2): 173-182.
Perkins KA, Marcus MD, Levine MD, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce weight concerns improves smoking cessation outcome in weight-concerned women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001; 69(4): 604-613.
Piper ME, Piasecki TM, Federman EB, et al. A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68). J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004; 72(2): 139-154.
Polen MR, Curry SJ, Grothaus LC, et al. Depressed mood and smoking experimentation among preteens. Psychol Addict Behav. 2004; 18(2): 194-198.
Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist. 1992; 47: 1102-1114.
Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS. Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology. 1993; 12: 399-405.
Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Fava JL, Rossi JS, Tsoh JY. Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors. 2001; 26: 583-602.
Prochaska JO, Velicer WF. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1997; 12: 38-48.
Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, de Moor CA, Kelder SH, Conroy JL, Ordway N. Nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and adolescents' readiness to quit smoking. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2001; 3: 151-155.
Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, Stancic N. Adolescent smoking: epidemiology and approaches for achieving cessation. Pediatric Drugs. 2003; 5(1): 1-10.
Prokhorov AV, Warneke C, de Moor C, et al. Self-reported health status, health vulnerability, and smoking behavior in college students: implications for intervention. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2003; 5(4): 545-552.
Rea TD, Heckbert SR, Kaplan RC, Smith NL, Lemaitre RN, Psaty BM. Smoking status and risk for recurrent coronary events after myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137(6): 494-500.
Rennard SI. Overview of causes of COPD. New understanding of pathogenesis and mechanisms can guide future therapy. Postgrad Med. 2002; 111(6): 28-30, 33-34, 37-38.
Reynolds P, Hurley S, Goldberg DE,, et al. Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: evidence from the California teachers study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004; 96(1): 29-37.
Ribisl KM. The potential of the internet as a medium to encourage and discourage youth tobacco use. Tob Control. 2003; 12(supp 1): i48-i59.
Rigotti NA, Arnsten JH, McKool KM, Wood-Reid KM, Pasternak RC, Singer DE. Efficacy of a smoking cessation program for hospital patients. Arch Intern Med. 1997; 157(22): 2653-2660.
Rimer BK, Orleans CT, Keintz MK, Cristinzio S, Fleisher, L. The older smoker. Status, challenges and opportunities for intervention. Chest. 1990; 97(3): 547-53.
Rollnick S, Butler CC, Stott N. Helping smokers make decisions: the enhancement of brief interventions for general medical practice. Patient Educ Couns. 1997; 31: 191-203.
Rollnick S, Mason P, Butler C. Health behavior change: a guide for practitioners. Churchill Livingstone. 2003.
Rollnick S, Miller WR. What is motivational interviewing?. Behav Cognitive Psychother. 1995; 23: 325-334.
Rollnick S, Miller WR. What is motivational interviewing?. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 1995; 23: 325-334.
Rosengren D, Wagner CC. Motivational interviewing: shall we dance?. In: Coombs R, ed. Addiction Recovery Tools: A Practitioner's Handbook. Sage Publications. 2001.
Roski J, Schmid LA, Lando HA. Long-term associations of helpful and harmful spousal behaviors with smoking cessation. Addict Behav. 1996; 21(2): 173-185.
Rubak S, Sandbæk A, Lauritzen T, Christensen B. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General Pratice.
2005. Available at: http://bjgp.org/content/55/513/305
Accessed on: 2014-09-18.
Ruchlin HS. An analysis of smoking patterns among older adults. Med Care. 1999; 37(6): 615-9.
Ryu JH, Scanlon PD. Obstructive lung diseases: COPD, asthma, and many imitators. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2001; 76(11): 1144-1153.
Sargent JD, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Mott LA, Tickle JJ, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study. Br Med J. 2001; 323(7326): 1394-1397.
Scanlon PD, Connett JE, Waller LA, Altose MD, Bailey WC, Buist AS. Smoking cessation and lung function in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Lung Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000; 161: 381-390.
Schein JR. Cigarette smoking and clinically significant drug interactions. Ann Pharmacother. 1995; 29(11): 1139-1148.
Schneider NG, Olmstead R, Nilsson F, Mody FV, Franzon M, Doan K. Efficacy of a nicotine inhaler in smoking cessation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Addiction. 1996; 91: 1293-1306.
Shadel WG, Shiffman S, Niaura R, Nichter M, Abrams DB. Current models of nicotine dependence: what is known and what is needed to advance understanding of tobacco etiology among youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2000; 59(supp 1): S9-S21.
Sheahan SL. How to help older adults quit smoking. Nurse Pract. 2002; 27(12): 27-33.
Shiffman CH, Jarvick ME. Smoking withdrawal symptoms in two weeks of abstinence. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 1976; 50(1): 35-39.
Shiffman S, Dresler CM, Hajek P, Gilburt SJA, Targett DA, Strahs KR. Efficacy of a nicotine lozenge for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 62: 1267-1276.
Shiffman S, Waters AJ, Hickcox M. The Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale: A multidimensional measure of nicotine dependence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2004; 6(2): 327-348.
Siafakas NM, Tzortzaki EG. Few smokers develop COPD. Why?. Respir Med. 2002; 96(8): 615-624.
Simon JA, Carmody TP, Hudes ES, Snyder E, Murray J. Intensive smoking cessation counseling versus minimal counseling among hospitalized smokers treated with transdermal nicotine replacement: a randomized trial. Am J Med. 2003; 114(7): 555-562.
Simons-Morton B, Chen R, Abroms L, Haynie DL. Latent growth curve analyses of peer and parent influences on smoking progression among early adolescents. Health Psychol. 2004; 23(6): 612-621.
Siu AL, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med.
2015. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26389730
Accessed on: 2016-02-09.
Slater MD. Sensation-seeking as a moderator of the effects of peer influences, consistency with personal aspirations, and perceived harm on marijuana and cigarette use among younger adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2003; 38(7): 865-880.
Slotkin TA. Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse?. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1998; 285: 931-945.
Smith TA, House RF, Croghan IT, et al. Nicotine patch therapy in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 1996; 98: 659.
Smoking cessation treatment by primary care physicians: An update and call for training. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006; 31(3): 233-239.
Smoking-related attitudes and clinical practices of medical personnel in Minnesota. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2004; 27(4): 316-322.
Sobell LC, Sobell MB, Agrawal S. Self-change and dual recoveries among individuals with alcohol and tobacco problems: current knowledge and future directions. Alcohol Clinical Experimental Research. 2002; (12): 1936-1938.
Solberg LI, Boyle RG, Davidson G, Magnan SJ, Carlson CL. Patient satisfaction and discussion of smoking cessation and discussion of smoking cessation during clinical visits. Mayo Clin Prac. 2001; 76: 136-43.
Spring B, Pagoto S, Pingitore R, Doran N, Schneider K, Hedeker D. Randomized controlled trial for behavioral smoking and weight control treatment: effect of concurrent versus sequential intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. October 2004; 72(5): 785-796.
Stephens SA. The Effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in Adolescent Smoking Cessation. Pocatello: University of Idaho. 2001.
Stevens VJ, Glasgow RE, Hollis JF, Mount K. Implementation and effectiveness of a brief smoking-cessation intervention for hospital patients. Med Care. 2000; 38(5): 451-459.
Stewart D, Oslin DW. Recognition and treatment of late-life addictions in medical settings. J Clin Geropsychol. 2001; 7(2): 145-158.
Stoddard JJ, Gray B. Maternal smoking and medical expenditures for childhood respiratory illness. Am J Public Health. 1997; 87: 205-209.
Stotts AL, Schmitz JM, Grabowski J. Concurrent treatment for alcohol and tobacco dependence: are patients ready to quit both?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2003; 69: 1-7.
Stratton K, Shetty P, Wallace R, Bondurant S. Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Institute of Medicine. 2001.
Strecher VJ, O'Malley MS, Villagra VG, et al. Can residents be trained to counsel patients about quitting smoking? Results from a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med. 1991; 6(1): 9-17.
Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Pudaric S. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among older black, Mexican-American, and white women and men: an analysis of NHANES III, 1988-1994. Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49(2): 109-116.
Sussman S, Dent CW, Lichtman KL. Project EX: outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addict Behav. 2001; 26(3): 425-438.
Sussman S. Effects of sixty-six adolescent tobacco use cessation trials and seventeen prospective studies of self-initiated quitting. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2002; 1(1): 35-81.
Tailoring tobacco counseling to the competing demands in the clinical encounter. Journal of Family Practice. 2001; 50(10): .
Taylor DH Jr, Hasselblad V, Henley SJ, Thun MJ, Sloan FA. Benefits of smoking cessation for longevity. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92(6): 990-996.
The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General Website. 2006.
The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education. 4th ed. 2008.
Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use: racial and ethnic differences among U.S. high school seniors, 1976-2000. Public Health Reports. 2002.
Tomeo CA, Field AE, Berkey CS, Colditz GA, Frazier AL.. Weight concerns, weight control behaviors, and smoking initiation. Pediatrics.
1999; 104: 918-24. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506235
Accessed on: 2010-06-01.
Tonstad S, Tonnesen P, Hajek P. Effect of maintenance therapy with varenicline on smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006; 296(1): 64-71.
Tran K, Asakawa K, Cimon K, et al. Pharmacologic-based strategies for smoking cessation: clinical and cost-effectiveness analyses. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). 2010; Sep:1: 548.
Turnheim K. When drug therapy gets old: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2003; 38(8): 843-853.
Tyc VL, Hadley W, Allen D, et al. Predictors of smoking intentions and smoking status among nonsmoking and smoking adolescents. Addict Behav. 2004; 29(6): 1143-1147.
Unger JB, Rohrback LA, Ribisl KM. Are adolescents attempting to buy cigarettes on the Internet?. Tob Control. 2001; 10: 360-363.
University of Michigan. Cigarette Use and Smokeless Tobacco Use Decline Substantially Among Teens. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan News and Information Services. December 14, 2000.
Unplanned quit attempts — results from a U.S. sample of smokers and ex-smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco. 2009; 11(7): 827–832. Accessed on: 2010-06-29.
Upadhyaya HP, Deas D, Brady KT, Kruesi M. Cigarette smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002; 41(11): 1294-1305.
US Bureau of the Census. National Cancer Institute Tobacco Use Supplement, Public Use Data Tapes, 1992-1993.. NIH. 1993.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Ga: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 2000.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Health, United States, 2004: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 2004b.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Ga: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 1994.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. SGR4 Kids: The Surgeon General's Report for Kids about Smoking. Atlanta, Ga: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services.
1994. Available at: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/T/G/
Accessed on: 2010-06-15.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph Number 2: Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective.. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication. 1992.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking (Nicotine Addiction): A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md: Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 1988.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services.
2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2004/pdfs/executivesummary.pdf
Accessed on: 2004-12-17.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office on Smoking and Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services.
2004a. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2004/pdfs/executivesummary.pdf
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups -- African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. 1998.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General -- 2001. Atlanta, Ga: Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services. 2001.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Youth and Tobacco: Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Md: Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services.
1995. Available at: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/L/Q/_/nnbclq.pdf
Accessed on: 2003-01-08.
Van Duijn CM, Hofman A. Relation between nicotine intake and Alzheimer's disease. Br Med J. 1991; 302(6791): 1491-1494.
Velicer WF, Hughes SL, Fava JL, Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. An empirical typology of subjects within stage of change. Addictive Behaviors. 1995; 20: 299-320.
Ventura SJ, Martin JA, Curtin SC, Mathews TJ, Park MM. Births: final data for 1998. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2000; 48(3): 1-100.
Vickers KS, Thomas JL, Patten CA, Mrazek DA. Prevention of tobacco use in adolescents: review of current findings and implications for healthcare providers. Current Opin Pediatr. 2002; 14(6): 708-712.
West R, Hajek P. Evaluation of the mood and physical symptoms scale (MPSS) to assess cigarette withdrawal. Psychopharmacology.
2004; 177: 195-199. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15179542
Accessed on: 2014-09-22.
West R, McEwen A, Bolling K, Owen L. Smoking cessation and smoking patterns in the general population: a 1-year follow-up. Addiction. 2001; 96(6): 891-902.
Westmaas JL, Wild TC, Ferrence R. Effects of gender in social control of smoking cessation. Health Psychol. 2002; 21(4): 368-376.
Wills TA, Sandy JM, Yaeger AM. Stress and smoking in adolescence: a test of directional hypotheses. Health Psychol. 2002; 21(2): 122-130.
Winkleby MA, Feighery E, Dunn M, Kole S, Ahn D, Killen JD. Effects of an advocacy intervention to reduce smoking among teenagers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158: 269-275.
Wong LS, Green HM, Feugate JE, Yadav M, Nothnagel EA, Martins-Green M. Effects of "second-hand" smoke on structure and function of fibroblasts, cells that are critical for tissue repair and remodeling. BMC Cell Biol. 2004; 5(1): 13.
Woody D, DeCristofaro C, Carlton BG. Smoking cessation readiness: Are your patients ready to quit?
. J AM Acad Nurse Pract.
2008; 20: 407-14. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786015
Accessed on: 2014-09-23.
Zhou S, Zhou R, Zhong T, et al.. Association of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking with Dementia Risk Among Elderly Men in China. Curr Alzheimer Res.
2014. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274108
Accessed on: 2014-10-21.
Zhu SJ, Sun J, Billings SC, Choi WS, Malarcher A. Predictors of smoking cessation in U.S. adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 1999; 16(3): 202-207.
Ziedalski TM, Sankaranarayanan V, Chitkara RK. Advances in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 4(7): 1063-1082.