Smokeless Tobacco Tolerance and Withdrawal

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Tolerance (decrease in effect after repeated exposure) for smokeless tobacco is presumably responsible for the increased daily use of the product with longer use (Hatsukami and Severson 1999). Regular users also experience withdrawal symptoms when not using smokeless tobacco.

Withdrawal

(CDC 1994)

Withdrawal symptoms in smokeless tobacco users are similar to those experienced by smokers, with the exception that smokers more frequently report feeling depressed when in withdrawal (Hatsukami and Severson 1999). Smokeless tobacco users with greater frequency of use experience more severe withdrawal symptoms (CDC 1994), presumably due to their higher nicotine intake.

View ReferencesHide References
Centers for Disease Control. Reasons for tobacco use and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal among adolescent and young adult tobacco users -- United States 1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994; 43: 745-750.
Hatsukami DK, Severson HH. Oral spit tobacco: addiction, prevention and treatment. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 1999; 1(1): 21-44.