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Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-Mediated Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana ARGONAUTES (NbAGOs) Reveals New Antiviral Candidates and Dominant Effects of TRV-NbAGO1.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am

Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-Mediated Silencing of Nicotiana benthamiana ARGONAUTES (NbAGOs) Reveals New Antiviral Candidates and Dominant Effects of TRV-NbAGO1.

Phytopathology. 2017 Jun 21;:PHYTO02170049R

Authors: Odokonyero D, Mendoza MR, Moffett P, Scholthof HB

Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of different ARGONAUTE proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbAGOs) to the defense against silencing sensitive GFP-expressing viral constructs based on Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) (Tombusvirus), Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (Tobamovirus), and Foxtail mosaic virus (Potexvirus). Upon Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated down-regulation of NbAGO1, 4, 5, or 6, no effects were noted on susceptibility to any virus construct, whereas knockdown of NbAGO2 specifically prevented silencing of P19-defective TBSV (TGdP19). Down-regulation of a new gene referred to as NbAGO5L showed some reduced silencing for TGdP19 but not for the other two virus constructs, whereas silencing of NbAGO7 gave rise to a subtle increase in susceptibility to all three viruses. Co-infiltrating different TRV-NbAGO constructs simultaneously did not enhance virus susceptibility. However, an unexpected finding was that whenever the TRV-NbAGO1 construct was present, this compromised silencing of genes targeted by co-infiltrated constructs, as shown upon co-infiltration of TRV-NbAGO1 with either TRV-NbAGO2 or TRV-Sul (targeting Magnesium chelatase I). Only after a prolonged period (approximately 2 months) did TRV-Sul-mediated systemic bleaching occur in these co-infected plants, suggesting that TRV-NbAGO1 hinders the silencing ability of other TRV-NbAGO constructs. In conclusion, this study revealed new antiviral NbAGOs and dominant effects of silencing NbAGO1.

PMID: 28636437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Disability and the impact of need for periodontal care on quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am

Disability and the impact of need for periodontal care on quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

J Int Med Res. 2017 Jan 01;:300060517715376

Authors: El Tantawi M, AlAgl A

Abstract
Objective The need for periodontal care may negatively impact daily life. We compared the need for periodontal care and its impact on daily life between disabled and healthy adults in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 819 adults, a questionnaire was used to assess personal background factors; the impact of periodontitis on pain, avoiding foods, embarrassment, sleeplessness, work absence, and discontinuing daily activities; and risk factors (smoking, diabetes, toothbrushing, insurance, professional tooth cleaning, and dental visits). The outcome was clinically assessed need for periodontal care impacting daily life. The relationship between the outcome and risk factors adjusted for personal background and disability was assessed using ordinal regression. Results Healthy and disabled persons had a high need for periodontal care (66.8%). Current smokers had a higher likelihood and health-insured persons had a lower likelihood of need for periodontal care impacting daily life regardless of whether disability was considered. Conclusions Most adults needed periodontal care, and disabled persons experienced a greater impact on life. Current smokers and uninsured persons were more likely to need periodontal care impacting daily life. Our findings are important for the prevention of periodontitis through tobacco cessation and extending insurance coverage.

PMID: 28635358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A retrospective analysis of the comparative effectiveness of smoking cessation medication among individuals with mental illness in community-based mental health and addictions treatment settings.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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A retrospective analysis of the comparative effectiveness of smoking cessation medication among individuals with mental illness in community-based mental health and addictions treatment settings.

J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2017 Jun 21;:

Authors: Okoli CTC, Wiggins A, Fallin-Bennett A, Rayens MK

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with mental illnesses (MI) have diagnostic-specific reasons for smoking and achieve low smoking cessation when using cessation medications.
AIM: To assess differences in smoking cessation outcomes by MI diagnosis and cessation medications in outpatient mental health and addictions treatment settings in Vancouver, Canada METHOD: A retrospective analysis of tobacco treatment outcomes from 539 participants. The program consists of cessation pharmacotherapy with 8- to 12-weeks of behavioral counseling and 12-weeks of support group. Smoking cessation was verified by expired carbon monoxide levels. Generalized estimating equations models assessed differences in cessation by type of medication in both total and stratified samples.
RESULTS: No significant differences in cessation by pharmacotherapy in the total sample. Individuals with a mood disorder were two-times more likely to achieve cessation as compared to those with an anxiety disorder. Among individuals with mood disorders, receiving varenicline alone resulted in three-times the likelihood of cessation as compared to receiving single NRT.
DISCUSSION: The differences in outcomes by MI diagnosis suggest the need for more diagnosis-specific approaches to optimize cessation.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Compared to other diagnoses, persons with anxiety disorders may have a greater challenge quitting and those with a psychotic disorder may require longer treatment durations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28635015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Prevalence of tobacco smoking in Switzerland: do reported numbers underestimate reality?

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Prevalence of tobacco smoking in Switzerland: do reported numbers underestimate reality?

Swiss Med Wkly. 2017 Jun 21;147:w14437

Authors: Jakob J, Cornuz J, Diethelm P

Abstract
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: Surveys on tobacco consumption represent an important decision aid for public health policy related to smoking. Although Switzerland's tobacco control policies and regulations are among the weakest, its reported smoking prevalence is among the lowest in Europe. However, there appears to be a discrepancy between reported prevalence and aggregate data on national cigarette consumption. Our purpose was to closely look at this discrepancy and study its significance.
METHODS: Calculation of national aggregate tobacco consumption by Switzerland's resident population for the years 2012 to 2015 and comparison with reported consumption derived from survey results on smoking prevalence and intensity. Comparison with similar data for France for year 2014. Evaluation of several hypotheses to explain the discrepancy between survey results and national aggregate consumption data.
RESULTS: There was a large discrepancy of about 45% between reported smoking consumption implied by survey results and estimated actual consumption derived from aggregate data on sales. Whereas survey results suggest smoking prevalence in Switzerland to be around 25% and rather stable during the period 2012 to 2015, true prevalence could be greater than 31%.
CONCLUSION: The results of surveys aiming to estimate smoking prevalence and intensity in Switzerland may substantially suffer from underreporting, misreporting and sampling bias. Survey methodology needs to be examined to see whether such reporting discrepancy can be reduced.

PMID: 28634966 [PubMed - in process]

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Dynamics of tobacco DNA topoisomerases II in cell cycle regulation: to manage topological constrains during replication, transcription and mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Dynamics of tobacco DNA topoisomerases II in cell cycle regulation: to manage topological constrains during replication, transcription and mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation.

Plant Mol Biol. 2017 Jun 20;:

Authors: Singh BN, Achary VMM, Panditi V, Sopory SK, Reddy MK

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle. Topoisomerase II transcript accumulation was observed during the S- and G2/M- phase of cell cycle. This biphasic expression pattern indicates the active requirement of topoisomerase II during these stages of the cell cycle. Through immuno-localization of topoisomerase II was observed diffusely throughout the nucleoplasm in interphase nuclei, whereas, the nucleolus region exhibited a more prominent immuno-positive staining that correlated with rRNA transcription, as shown by propidium iodide staining and BrUTP incorporation. The immuno-staining analysis also showed that topoisomerase II is the major component of mitotic chromosomes and remain attached to the chromosomes during cell division. The inhibition of topoisomerase II activity using specific inhibitors revealed quite dramatic effect on condensation of chromatin and chromosome individualization from prophase to metaphase transition. Partially condensed chromosomes were not arranged on metaphase plate and chromosomal perturbations were observed when advance to anaphase, suggesting the importance of topoisomerase II activity for proper chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. Contrary, topoisomerase II is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, even though mitosis and meiosis share many processes, including the DNA replication, chromosome condensation and precisely regulated partitioning of chromosomes into daughter cells. Even if topoisomerase II is required for individualization and condensation of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed.

PMID: 28634865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Tobacco Use during Pregnancy and Its Associated Factors in a Mountain District of Eastern Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Tobacco Use during Pregnancy and Its Associated Factors in a Mountain District of Eastern Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey.

Front Public Health. 2017;5:129

Authors: Barakoti R, Ghimire A, Pandey AR, Baral DD, Pokharel PK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Tobacco using among women is more prevalent in Nepal as compared to other South-East Asian countries. The effect of its use is seen not only on the pregnant women, but also health of the growing fetus is compromised. Currently, little is known about the tobacco use among women especially during pregnancy in Nepal. This study explored the tobacco use prevalence and its associated factors during pregnancy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sankhuwasabha, a mountain district of eastern Nepal. Representative sample of 436 women of reproductive age group with infant were selected by stratified simple random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of selected participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship among variables.
RESULTS: The study revealed that the prevalence of tobacco use during pregnancy was 17.2%. Only one fifth of the research participants were asked to quit tobacco by health workers during last pregnancy. Multivariable analyses revealed that illiteracy (AOR: 2.31, CI: 1.18-4.52), more than two parity (AOR: 2.45, CI: 1.19-5.07), alcohol use during last pregnancy (AOR: 3.99, CI: 1.65-9.68), and having tobacco user within family (AOR: 2.05, CI: 1.11-3.78) are more likely to use tobacco during pregnancy.
CONCLUSION: Tobacco use during pregnancy was widely prevalent. Tobacco-focused interventions are required for antenatal women to promote cessation among user and prevent initiation with focus on overcoming problems like illiteracy, high parity, alcohol use, and having other tobacco user family members in family.

PMID: 28634580 [PubMed - in process]

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Reducing tobacco-related harm: FDA's proposed product standard for smokeless tobacco.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Reducing tobacco-related harm: FDA's proposed product standard for smokeless tobacco.

Tob Control. 2017 Jun 20;:

Authors: Berman ML, Hatsukami DK

Abstract
This Special Communication discusses the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) proposed rule that would limit N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) levels in smokeless tobacco products. It argues that finalising and implementing this first 'product standard' would mark a significant step forward in the FDA's efforts to reduce tobacco-related harms.

PMID: 28634163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Linking the content to demographic reach of online advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Linking the content to demographic reach of online advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems.

Tob Control. 2017 Jun 20;:

Authors: Timberlake DS, Nikitin D, Garcia-Cano J, Cino S, Savkina M, Pechmann C

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have separately examined the content and demographic reach of the advertising of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). No study to our knowledge has linked the two in investigating whether racial/ethnic groups are differentially exposed to the comparative messages conveyed in online ENDS advertisements.
METHODS: 932 unique ENDS advertisements (6311 total), which were posted on 3435 websites between December, 2009 and October, 2015, were categorized as either comparative or non-comparative with respect to the traditional cigarette. The race/ethnicity of website visitors was obtained from a proprietary source and used in constructing variables for racial/ethnic viewership. The variables for advertising content and website racial/ethnic viewership were then linked yielding a final sample of 551 unique ENDS advertisements (2498 total) on 1206 websites. A two-level hierarchical generalized linear model, used in estimating website racial/ethnic viewership as a predictor of comparative advertising, accounted for the nesting of advertisements (level 1) within 152 ENDS brands (level 2).
RESULTS: In contrast to racial/ethnic minorities, a greater proportion of non-Hispanic whites visited websites with ENDS advertisements than the overall proportion of nonHispanic white U.S. Internet users. Yet, it was the advertisements on websites that appealed to Hispanics that had greater odds of comparing ENDS to traditional cigarettes.
CONCLUSIONS: The lower exposure to ENDS advertising among racial/ethnic minorities versus non-Hispanic whites is consistent with survey data. Yet, the greater odds of comparative advertising of ENDS on websites that appeal to racial/ethnic minorities (ie, Hispanics) could impact the longterm health of minority smokers.
IMPLICATIONS: This study's findings have important implications for the uptake of ENDS among minority smokers. If the comparative advertising yields greater interest and eventual use of ENDS, then minority smokers could either benefit from smoking cessation because they switch to ENDS, or adopt dual tobacco use. The fate of comparative advertising of ENDS versus the traditional cigarette will depend on the Food and Drug Administration enforcement of its deeming rules and the ensuing changes in the ENDS marketplace.

PMID: 28634162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Does atopy affect the course of viral pneumonia?

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Does atopy affect the course of viral pneumonia?

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2017 Jun 17;:

Authors: Erdem SB, Can D, Girit S, Çatal F, Şen V, Pekcan S, Yüksel H, Bingöl A, Bostancı I, Erge D, Ersu R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The presence of atopy is considered as a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of atopy on the course of disease in children hospitalised with viral pneumonia.
METHODS: Children between the ages of 1 and 6 years hospitalised due to viral pneumonia between the years of 2013 and 2016 were included to this multicentre study. Patients were classified into two groups as mild-moderate and severe according to the course of pneumonia. Presence of atopy was evaluated with skin prick tests. Groups were compared to evaluate the risk factors associated with severe viral pneumonia.
RESULTS: A total of 280 patients from nine centres were included in the study. Of these patients, 163 (58.2%) were male. Respiratory syncytial virus (29.7%), Influenza A (20.5%), rhinovirus (18.9%), adenovirus (10%), human metapneumovirus (8%), parainfluenza (5.2%), coronavirus (6%), and bocavirus (1.6%) were isolated from respiratory samples. Eighty-five (30.4%) children had severe pneumonia. Atopic sensitisation was found in 21.4% of the patients. Ever wheezing (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4), parental asthma (RR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), other allergic diseases in the family (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) and environmental tobacco smoke (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were more common in the severe pneumonia group.
CONCLUSIONS: When patients with mild-moderate pneumonia were compared to patients with severe pneumonia, frequency of atopy was not different between the two groups. However, parental asthma, ever wheezing and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are risk factors for severe viral pneumonia in children.

PMID: 28634031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

J Public Health (Oxf). 2017 Jun 17;:1-8

Authors: Boyle RG, D'silva J, Stanton CA, Carusi C, Tang Z

Abstract
Background: Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment.
Methods: Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels.
Results: Controlling for age and gender, a decreased rate of smoking among high and middle education groups was offset by an increase in the low education group. Dependence (time to first cigarette) was twice as high in the lowest education group compared to highest, yet dependence did not decline over time for any group. There was a decline in cigarettes per day in all education groups, but an increase in OTP use in the lowest and middle education groups.
Conclusions: Given existing smoking disparities, novel efforts are urgently needed. Complementing known population-level strategies with community and individual-level approaches will be necessary to eliminate the widening gap in smoking disparities and to end the burden of tobacco-related disease.

PMID: 28633484 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Mobility difficulties, physical activity and all-cause mortality risk in a nationally-representative sample of older adults.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Mobility difficulties, physical activity and all-cause mortality risk in a nationally-representative sample of older adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Jun 19;:

Authors: Olaya B, Moneta MV, Démenech-Abella J, Miret M, Bayes I, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Haro JM

Abstract
Background: This study sought to determine the association between levels of physical activity and mobility difficulties and time to death while accounting for the effect of several confounders. We also examined the possible interaction between them and how various daily-life mobility difficulties could predict all-cause mortality.
Methods: A nationally-representative sample of 2,074 non-institutionalized adults aged 60 years and older was analyzed. Vital status over a 3-year follow-up period was ascertained through national registers or by asking participants' relatives. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were stratified by levels of physical activity and mobility difficulties. Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models (by age, gender, marital status, years of education, multimorbidity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, depression, and memory function) were calculated and interactions between the predictors and the covariates explored.
Results: There was a dose-gradient effect of physical activity on time to death, with high levels associated with a 51% lower risk of dying, compared with moderate physical activity. Each unit increase in mobility functioning was associated with a 2% drop in mortality. Difficulties in standing for long periods, getting where one wants to go or extending arms to reach objects were also found to be strong predictors of all-cause mortality.
Conclusions: Our results confirm the importance of older adults practicing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The assessment of self-reported difficulties in daily-life mobility activities, such as standing for long periods or not being able to move around, could be used in health settings as a screening for mortality risk.

PMID: 28633439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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The asparagine-rich protein NRP interacts with the Verticillium effector PevD1 and regulates the subcellular localization of cryptochrome 2.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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The asparagine-rich protein NRP interacts with the Verticillium effector PevD1 and regulates the subcellular localization of cryptochrome 2.

J Exp Bot. 2017 Jun 13;:

Authors: Zhou R, Zhu T, Han L, Liu M, Xu M, Liu Y, Han D, Qiu D, Gong Q, Liu X

Abstract
The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants including cotton, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. Among the effector proteins secreted by V. dahliae, the 16 kDa PevD1 induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco. Here we report the high-resolution structure of PevD1 with folds resembling a C2 domain-like structure with a calcium ion bound to the C-terminal acidic pocket. A yeast two-hybrid screen, designed to probe for molecular functions of PevD1, identified Arabidopsis asparagine-rich protein (NRP) as the interacting partner of PevD1. Extending the pathway of V. dahliae effects, which include induction of early flowering in cotton and Arabidopsis, NRP was found to interact with cryptochrome 2 (CRY2), leading to increased cytoplasmic accumulation of CRY2 in a blue light-independent manner. Further physiological and genetic evidence suggests that PevD1 indirectly activates CRY2 by antagonizing NRP functions. The promotion of CRY2-mediated flowering by a fungal effector outlines a novel pathway by which an external stimulus is recognized and transferred in changing a developmental program.

PMID: 28633330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Family-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smoking Fathers and Nonsmoking Mothers with a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Pediatr. 2017 Mar;182:260-266.e4

Authors: Chan SS, Cheung YT, Fong DY, Emmons K, Leung AY, Leung DY, Lam TH

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family-based intervention targeting both smoking fathers and nonsmoking mothers in well-child health clinics is effective in increasing fathers' abstinence from cigarette smoking.
STUDY DESIGN: This parallel 2-arm randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 1158 families with a daily-smoking father, a nonsmoking mother, and a child aged 0-18 months from the 22 maternal and child health centers in Hong Kong. The intervention group received the family-based intervention, including 6 nurse-led individual face-to-face and telephone counseling sessions within 1 month after recruitment and a voluntary face-to-face family counseling session (FCS). The control group received a leaflet, a self-help booklet, and brief quitting advice only. Father-reported 7-day and 6-month abstinence, smoking reduction, quit attempts, mother-reported help and support, and child salivary cotinine level were assessed at 12 months. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare these outcomes between the 2 study groups.
RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported a greater prevalence of 7-day (13.7% vs 8.0%; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.16-3.17; P < .01) and 6-month self-reported abstinence (13.4% vs. 7.5%; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.40; P < .01). Within the intervention group, compared with receipt of individual counseling only, participation in the FCS was associated with increases in fathers' self-reported abstinence (20.2% vs 12.3%; P = .02), mothers' help (66.1% vs 43.8%; P < .01), and support to the fathers (55.0% vs 45.4%; P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS: The family-based smoking cessation intervention for the families in the well-child healthcare setting was effective in increasing the fathers' self-reported abstinence. Additional participation in the FCS increased mothers' help and support to the fathers.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN99111655; Hkuctr.com: HKUCTR-465.

PMID: 27989407 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Impairment of Immunoproteasome Function by Cigarette Smoke and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am
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Impairment of Immunoproteasome Function by Cigarette Smoke and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jun 01;193(11):1230-41

Authors: Kammerl IE, Dann A, Mossina A, Brech D, Lukas C, Vosyka O, Nathan P, Conlon TM, Wagner DE, Overkleeft HS, Prasse A, Rosas IO, Straub T, Krauss-Etschmann S, Königshoff M, Preissler G, Winter H, Lindner M, Hatz R, Behr J, Heinzelmann K, Yildirim AÖ, Noessner E, Eickelberg O, Meiners S

Abstract
RATIONALE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in particular smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections contributing to acute exacerbations of disease. The immunoproteasome is a specialized type of proteasome destined to improve major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-mediated antigen presentation for the resolution of intracellular infections.
OBJECTIVES: To characterize immunoproteasome function in COPD and its regulation by cigarette smoke.
METHODS: Immunoproteasome expression and activity were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lungs of human donors and patients with COPD or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), as well as in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Smoke-mediated alterations of immunoproteasome activity and MHC I surface expression were analyzed in human blood-derived macrophages. Immunoproteasome-specific MHC I antigen presentation was evaluated in spleen and lung immune cells that had been smoke-exposed in vitro or in vivo.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Immunoproteasome and MHC I mRNA expression was reduced in BAL cells of patients with COPD and in isolated alveolar macrophages of patients with COPD or IPF. Exposure of immune cells to cigarette smoke extract in vitro reduced immunoproteasome activity and impaired immunoproteasome-specific MHC I antigen presentation. In vivo, acute cigarette smoke exposure dynamically regulated immunoproteasome function and MHC I antigen presentation in mouse BAL cells. End-stage COPD lungs showed markedly impaired immunoproteasome activities.
CONCLUSIONS: We here show that the activity of the immunoproteasome is impaired by cigarette smoke resulting in reduced MHC I antigen presentation. Regulation of immunoproteasome function by cigarette smoke may thus alter adaptive immune responses and add to prolonged infections and exacerbations in COPD and IPF.

PMID: 26756824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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The CBHSQ Report

June 22, 2017 - 6:23am

The CBHSQ Report

Book. 2013

Authors:

Abstract
Background: Although cigarette use has decreased within the United States, the promotion of smokeless tobacco has increased. This report presents information on smokeless tobacco use and initiation. Method: This report uses data from the 2002 to 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to examine smokeless tobacco use and initiation among people aged 12 or older in 2014 and presents trends between 2002 and 2014. Results: In 2014, an estimated 8.7 million people aged 12 or older used smokeless tobacco in the past month. Males were more likely than females to have used smokeless tobacco in the past month. Percentages of people using smokeless tobacco in the past month remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2014. Around 1.0 million people aged 12 or older used smokeless tobacco for the first time in the past year. Although there were higher percentages of people initiating smokeless tobacco use in the past year among people at risk for initiation in 2005 through 2011, the 2014 estimates were similar to the levels between 2002 and 2004. Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco is not a healthy alternative to cigarette smoking. Although the number of Americans who smoke cigarettes has been significantly reduced, the overall use of smokeless tobacco has remained mostly unchanged since 2002. On the positive side, there have been declines in initiation of smokeless tobacco between 2006 and 2014 among males, adolescents, and young adults. Taken together, the findings in this report suggest a continuing need for prevention messages and tobacco cessation programs that specifically address the inherent risk of smokeless tobacco.


PMID: 28636307

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tobacco; +24 new citations

June 21, 2017 - 4:36pm

24 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/06/21

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +32 new citations

June 20, 2017 - 6:09am

32 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/06/20

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys.

June 19, 2017 - 6:39am

Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys.

Tob Control. 2017 Jun 17;:

Authors: Pearson JL, Hitchman SC, Brose LS, Bauld L, Glasser AM, Villanti AC, McNeill A, Abrams DB, Cohen JE

Abstract
A consistent approach using standardised items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behaviour, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid without further item development. Reliable and valid items will strengthen the emerging science and inform knowledge synthesis for policy-making. Building on informal discussions at a series of international meetings of 65 experts from 15 countries, the authors provide recommendations for assessing e-cigarette use behaviour, relative perceived harm, device type, presence of nicotine, flavours and reasons for use. We recommend items assessing eight core constructs: e-cigarette ever use, frequency of use and former daily use; relative perceived harm; device type; primary flavour preference; presence of nicotine; and primary reason for use. These items should be standardised or minimally adapted for the policy context and target population. Researchers should be prepared to update items as e-cigarette device characteristics change. A minimum set of e-cigarette items is proposed to encourage consensus around items to allow for cross-survey and cross-jurisdictional comparisons of e-cigarette use behaviour. These proposed items are a starting point. We recognise room for continued improvement, and welcome input from e-cigarette users and scientific colleagues.

PMID: 28624764 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Electronic cigarette use among US adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014.

June 19, 2017 - 6:39am

Electronic cigarette use among US adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, 2013-2014.

Tob Control. 2017 Jun 17;:

Authors: Coleman BN, Rostron B, Johnson SE, Ambrose BK, Pearson J, Stanton CA, Wang B, Delnevo C, Bansal-Travers M, Kimmel HL, Goniewicz ML, Niaura R, Abrams D, Conway KP, Borek N, Compton WM, Hyland A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the USA is increasing. As such, it is critical to understand who uses e-cigarettes, how e-cigarettes are used and what types of products are prevalent. This study assesses patterns of current e-cigarette use among daily and non-daily adult users in the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.
METHODS: We examined the proportion of current adult e-cigarette users (n=3642) reporting infrequent use (use on 'some days' and use on 0-2 of the past 30 days), moderate use (use on 'some days' and use on >2 of the past 30 days) and daily use. We examined demographic characteristics, use of other tobacco products and e-cigarette product characteristics overall and by use category. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were calculated using Poisson regression to assess correlates of daily e-cigarette use.
RESULTS: Among the 5.5% of adult current e-cigarette users in the PATH Study, 42.2% reported infrequent use, 36.5% reported moderate use and 21.3% reported daily use. Cigarette smokers who quit in the past year were more likely to report daily e-cigarette use, compared with current smokers (aPR=3.21, 95% CI=2.75 to 3.76). Those who reported using rechargeable or refillable devices were more likely to report daily use compared with those who did not use these devices (aPR=1.95, 95% CI=1.44 to 2.65 and aPR=2.10, 95% CI=1.75 to 2.52, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of e-cigarette users in this study reported less than daily use. Compared with non-daily use, daily use was associated with being a former smoker; however, cross-sectional data limits our ability to establish the temporality or directionality of such associations.

PMID: 28624763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Categories: Tobacco News Feed

How do smoking cessation medicines compare with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety? A protocol for a systematic review, network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis.

June 19, 2017 - 6:39am

How do smoking cessation medicines compare with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety? A protocol for a systematic review, network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis.

BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 17;7(6):e015414

Authors: Thomas KH, Caldwell D, Dalili MN, Gunnell D, Munafò MR, Stevenson M, Welton NJ

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers. Secondary aims include updating the evidence regarding the effectiveness and cardiovascular safety of these medicines for use in a cost-effectiveness analysis.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include randomised controlled trials and observational studies with control groups comparing monotherapy with varenicline, bupropion, NRT or electronic cigarette and combination therapies to each other, placebo or usual care. The primary composite safety outcome will be serious adverse events, defined as events that resulted in death, were life threatening, required hospitalisation or resulted in significant disability or congenital/birth defect. The preferred effectiveness outcome will be sustained smoking cessation defined as abstinence for a minimum of 6 months as determined by biochemical validation. We will include trials identified by previous reviews and search relevant databases for newly published trials as well as contacting study authors to identify unpublished information. We will conduct fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analyses for each pairwise comparison of treatments and outcome; where these estimates differ, we will consider reasons for heterogeneity, quantified using the between-study variance (τ(2)). For each outcome, we will construct a NMA in a Bayesian framework which will be compared with the pair-wise results, allowing us to rank treatments. The effectiveness estimates from the NMA will be entered into a probabilistic economic model.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this evidence synthesis study as it involves analysis of secondary data from randomised controlled trials and observational studies. The review will make an important contribution to the knowledge base around the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation medicines. Results will be disseminated to the general public, healthcare practitioners and clinicians, academics, industry and policy makers.
PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016041302.

PMID: 28624760 [PubMed - in process]

Categories: Tobacco News Feed

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