Pub Med: Keyword Tobacco

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tobacco; +20 new citations

14 hours 25 min ago

20 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/15

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +20 new citations

15 hours 40 min ago

20 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/15

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +57 new citations

December 14, 2017 - 9:39am

57 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/14

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +57 new citations

December 14, 2017 - 6:24am

57 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/14

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +23 new citations

December 13, 2017 - 7:24am

23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/13

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +23 new citations

December 13, 2017 - 6:42am

23 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/13

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +28 new citations

December 12, 2017 - 7:54am

28 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/12

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +28 new citations

December 12, 2017 - 6:24am

28 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/12

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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Long-term cardiovascular re-programming by short-term perinatal exposure to nicotine's main metabolite cotinine.

December 11, 2017 - 2:41pm

Long-term cardiovascular re-programming by short-term perinatal exposure to nicotine's main metabolite cotinine.

Acta Paediatr. 2017 Dec 09;:

Authors: Bastianini S, Martire VL, Silvani A, Zoccoli G, Berteotti C, Lagercrantz H, Arner A, Cohen G

Abstract
AIM: Gather "proof-of-concept" evidence of the adverse developmental potential of cotinine (a seemingly benign biomarker of recent nicotine / tobacco smoke exposure).
METHODS: Pregnant C57 mice drank nicotine or cotinine-laced water for 6wks from conception (NPRE = 2% saccharin+100μg nicotine/ml; CPRE = 2% saccharin + 10μg cotinine/ml) or 3wks after birth (CPOST = 2% saccharin + 30μg cotinine/ml). Controls drank 2% saccharin (CTRL). At 17±1weeks (male pups; CTRL n=6; CPOST n=6; CPRE n=8; NPRE n=9) we assessed (i) cardiovascular control during sleep; (ii) arterial reactivity ex vivo; (iii) expression of genes involved in arterial constriction / dilation.
RESULTS: Blood cotinine levels recapitulated those of passive smoker mothers-infants. Pups exposed to cotinine exhibited (i) mild bradycardia - hypotension at rest (p<0.001); (ii) attenuated (CPRE , p<0.0001) or reverse (CPOST ; p<0.0001) BP stress reactivity; (iii) adrenergic hypo-contractility (p<0.0003), low Protein Kinase C (p<0.001) and elevated adrenergic receptor mRNA (p<0.05; all drug-treated arteries); (iv) endothelial dysfunction (NPRE only).
CONCLUSION: Cotinine has subtle, enduring developmental consequences. Some cardiovascular effects of nicotine can plausibly arise via conversion to cotinine. Low-level exposure to this metabolite may pose unrecognized perinatal risks. Adults must avoid inadvertently exposing a fetus or infant to cotinine as well as nicotine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 29224235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Researchers Supporting Schools to Improve Health: Influential Factors and Outcomes of Knowledge Brokering in the COMPASS Study.

December 11, 2017 - 2:41pm

Researchers Supporting Schools to Improve Health: Influential Factors and Outcomes of Knowledge Brokering in the COMPASS Study.

J Sch Health. 2018 Jan;88(1):54-64

Authors: Brown KM, Elliott SJ, Leatherdale ST

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Although schools are considered opportune settings for youth health interventions, a gap between school health research and practice exists. COMPASS, a longitudinal study of Ontario and Alberta secondary students and schools (2012-2021), used integrated knowledge translation to enhance schools' uptake of research findings. Schools received annual summaries of their students' health behaviors and suggestions for action, and were linked with COMPASS knowledge brokers to support them in making changes to improve student health. This research examines the factors that influenced schools' participation in knowledge brokering and associated outcomes.
METHODS: School- and student-level data from the first 3 years of the COMPASS study (2012-2013; 2013-2014; 2014-2015) were used to examine factors that influenced knowledge brokering participation, school-level changes, and school-aggregated student health behaviors.
RESULTS: Both school characteristics and study-related factors influenced schools' participation in knowledge brokering. Knowledge brokering participation was significantly associated with school-level changes related to healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco programming, but the impact of those changes was not evident at the aggregate student level.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge brokering provided a platform for collaboration between researchers and school practitioners, and led to school-level changes. These findings can inform future researcher-school practitioner partnerships to ultimately enhance student health.

PMID: 29224218 [PubMed - in process]

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Performance of cigarette susceptibility index among e-cigarette and hookah users.

December 11, 2017 - 2:41pm

Performance of cigarette susceptibility index among e-cigarette and hookah users.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Aug 31;183:43-50

Authors: Barrington-Trimis JL, Leventhal AM, Alonzo TA, Cruz TB, Urman R, Liu F, Pentz MA, Unger JB, McConnell R

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Susceptibility to cigarette smoking has been used since the mid-1990s as a measure to identify youth at risk of cigarette initiation. However, it is unclear how well this measure predicts future smoking among electronic (e-)cigarette or hookah users, or among those in tobacco-friendly social environments.
METHODS: We used prospective data from the Southern California Children's Health Study to evaluate the performance (sensitivity, specificity, predictive value) of a composite index assessing susceptibility to smoking, and to evaluate whether performance of the measure differed by use of e-cigarettes or hookah, or immersion in a tobacco-friendly social environment. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking was measured in 11th/12th grade (2014) among never cigarette-smokers (N=1266); follow-up data on smoking initiation were obtained approximately 16 months later.
RESULTS: Overall, 16.4% of youth initiated smoking between baseline and follow-up. The sensitivity of the susceptibility to smoking index was low (46.4%), and specificity was high (79.0%). No difference in sensitivity was observed by baseline e-cigarette use; specificity was higher among never e- cigarette users. Differences in negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were also observed by baseline e-cigarette and hookah use. Specificity was generally lower, and sensitivity was generally higher for those in tobacco-friendly social environments.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that use of the susceptibility to smoking index in cross-sectional studies of older adolescents to identify those likely to begin smoking may be inappropriate for those using alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes or hookah).

PMID: 29223916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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A wheat MYB transcriptional repressor TaMyb1D regulates phenylpropanoid metabolism and enhances tolerance to drought and oxidative stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

December 11, 2017 - 2:41pm

A wheat MYB transcriptional repressor TaMyb1D regulates phenylpropanoid metabolism and enhances tolerance to drought and oxidative stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

Plant Sci. 2017 Dec;265:112-123

Authors: Wei Q, Zhang F, Sun F, Luo Q, Wang R, Hu R, Chen M, Chang J, Yang G, He G

Abstract
MYB transcription factors are involved in the regulation of plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, TaMyb1D, a novel subgroup 4 gene of the R2R3-MYB subfamily, was cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaMyb1D was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional repressor. The overexpression of TaMyb1D in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants repressed the expression of genes related to phenylpropanoid metabolism and down-regulated the accumulation of lignin in stems and flavonoids in leaves. These changes affected plant development under normal conditions. The expression of TaMyb1D was ubiquitous and up-regulated by PEG6000 and H2O2 treatments in wheat. TaMyb1D-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher relative water content and lower water loss rate during drought stress, as well as higher chlorophyll content in leaves during oxidative stress. The transgenic plants showed a lower leakage of ions as well as reduced malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels during conditions of drought and oxidative stresses. In addition, TaMyb1D up-regulated the expression levels of ROS- and stress-related genes in response to drought stress. Therefore, the overexpression of TaMyb1D enhanced tolerance to drought and oxidative stresses in tobacco plants. Our study demonstrates that TaMyb1D functions as a negative regulator of phenylpropanoid metabolism and a positive regulator of plant tolerance to drought and oxidative stresses.

PMID: 29223332 [PubMed - in process]

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Expression of a populus histone deacetylase gene 84KHDA903 in tobacco enhances drought tolerance.

December 11, 2017 - 2:41pm

Expression of a populus histone deacetylase gene 84KHDA903 in tobacco enhances drought tolerance.

Plant Sci. 2017 Dec;265:1-11

Authors: Ma X, Zhang B, Liu C, Tong B, Guan T, Xia D

Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. However, functions of HDACs in woody plants are largely unknown. In this study, a novel gene encoding a RPD3/HDA1-type histone deacetylase was cloned from 84K poplar (Populus alba×Populus glandulosa) and designated as 84KHDA903. The 84KHDA903 encodes a protein composed of 500 amino acid residues, which contains a conserved HDAC domain. Transient expression of 84KHDA903 in onion epidermal cells suggested that it was exclusively localized in nucleus. The 84KHDA903 exhibited different expression patterns under drought, salt and ABA treatments. The expression of 84KHDA903 was responsive to drought and ABA but not to salt. To understand the function of 84KHDA903 in stress responses, the 84KHDA903 gene was transformed into tobacco. The expression of 84KHDA903 in tobacco increased the tolerance of transgenic seeds to mannitol but not to salt. In adult stage, the 84KHDA903-expressing tobacco exhibited drought tolerance and showed strong capacity to recover after drought. During the recovery period, the stress-responsive genes including NtDREB4, NtDREB3 and NtLEA5 were induced to be highly expressed in the 84KHDA903 transgenic plants in contrast to wild-type plants. Taken together, for the first time, we reported a RPD3/HDA1-type histone deacetylase from poplar, 84KHDA903, which acted as a positive regulator in drought stress responses.

PMID: 29223330 [PubMed - in process]

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Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am

Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(1):19-28

Authors: Nguyen TT, Hoang MV

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam.
RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and seafood. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.

PMID: 29222878 [PubMed - in process]

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Phytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in tobacco plants.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Phytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in tobacco plants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Dec 08;:

Authors: Cvjetko P, Zovko M, Štefanić PP, Biba R, Tkalec M, Domijan AM, Vrček IV, Letofsky-Papst I, Šikić S, Balen B

Abstract
The small size of nanoparticles (NPs), with dimensions between 1 and 100 nm, results in unique chemical and physical characteristics, which is why they are implemented in various consumer products. Therefore, an important concern is the potential detrimental impact of NPs on the environment. As plants are a vital part of ecosystem, investigation of the phytotoxic effects of NPs is particularly interesting. This study investigated the potential phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and compared it with the effects of the same AgNO3 concentrations. Accumulation of silver in roots and leaves was equally efficient after both AgNP and AgNO3 treatment, with predominant Ag levels found in the roots. Exposure to AgNPs did not result in elevated values of oxidative stress parameters either in roots or in leaves, while AgNO3 induced oxidative stress in both plant tissues. In the presence of both AgNPs and AgNO3, root meristem cells became highly vacuolated, which indicates that vacuoles might be the primary storage target for accumulated Ag. Direct AgNP uptake by root cells was confirmed. Leaf ultrastructural studies revealed changes mainly in the size of chloroplasts of AgNP-treated and AgNO3-treated plants. All of these findings indicate that nano form of silver is less toxic to tobacco plants than silver ions.

PMID: 29222658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Occupational prestige trajectory and the risk of lung and head and neck cancer among men and women in France.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Occupational prestige trajectory and the risk of lung and head and neck cancer among men and women in France.

Int J Public Health. 2017 Dec 09;:

Authors: Menvielle G, Dugas J, Franck JE, Carton M, Trétarre B, Stücker I, Luce D, Icare group

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the associations between occupational prestige trajectories and lung and head and neck (HN) cancer risk and to assess to what extent smoking, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposures contribute to these associations.
METHODS: Using data from the ICARE case-control study (controls (2676 men/715 women), lung cancers (2019 men/558 women), HN cancers (1793 men/305 women), we defined occupational prestige trajectories using group-based modeling of longitudinal data. We conducted logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Among men, a gradient was observed from the downward "low to very low" trajectory to the stable very high trajectory. The associations were reduced when adjusting for tobacco and alcohol consumption and occupational exposures. Among women, when compared to the stable high trajectory, there was an increased cancer risk in all trajectories. The associations remained globally unchanged or even increased after adjustment for tobacco and alcohol consumption and did not change when adjusting for occupational exposures. The ORs were smaller for lung than for HN cancers in men.
CONCLUSIONS: Occupational prestige trajectory is strongly associated with lung and HN cancer risk in men and women.

PMID: 29222577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Illicit cigarette sales in Indian cities: findings from a retail survey.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Illicit cigarette sales in Indian cities: findings from a retail survey.

Tob Control. 2017 Dec 08;:

Authors: John RM, Ross H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate illicit cigarette consumption in India using a modified and replicable method and compare it with estimates generated by the tobacco industry and by a commercial entity.
METHODS: The study employed a modified approach to cigarette pack analysis suitable for countries with prevalent single-cigarette sales. Empty cigarette packs generated by 1 day's single-cigarette sales were collected directly from cigarette vendors in four large and four small cities covering the length and breadth of India. Ten areas were randomly selected in each city/town, and all shops selling cigarettes within 1 km of the central point were surveyed. A cigarette pack was classified as illicit if it had at least one of the following attributes: (a) a duty-free sign; (b) no graphic health warnings; (c) no textual health warnings; or (d) no mention of 'price inclusive of all taxes' or similar text.
FINDINGS: We collected 11 063 empty cigarette packs from 1727 retailers, and 2.73% of them were classified as illicit. The estimates varied substantially across locations with the highest prevalence of illicit packs in the town of Aizawl near the Bangladesh and Myanmar border (35.87%). The share of illicit cigarettes was found to be much higher (13.77%) among the cheapest cigarette brands. Illicit cigarettes are primarily distributed via formal stores rather than informal tea/pan shops.
CONCLUSION: Our estimate of the illicit cigarette market share of 2.73% casts serious doubt on the tobacco industry estimate of 20% and Euromonitor's estimate of 21.3%.

PMID: 29222108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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The effects of assurances of voluntary compliance on retail sales to minors in the United States: 2015-2016.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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The effects of assurances of voluntary compliance on retail sales to minors in the United States: 2015-2016.

Prev Med. 2017 Dec 05;:

Authors: Dai H, Catley D

Abstract
Multiple state attorneys generals have entered assurances of voluntary compliance (AVCs) with numerous national retail chains as an application of consumer protection laws to help prevent tobacco sales to minors. Little is known about the effectiveness of AVCs in reducing the violations of tobacco retailers for underage sales. We collected inspection data involving minors (n=53,832) on tobacco retailers in 2015 and 2016 from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) compliance check database. Inspections on 13 national retail chains were classified into four categories: gas stations from oil companies, convenience stores, pharmacy stores, and supermarkets. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to examine the effectiveness of AVCs, adjusted for state tobacco control policies, state youth smoking rates, and socio-economic status (SES) at census tracts. Overall the Retail Violation Rate for sales to minors (RVRm) significantly varied by retail category from 7.7% in pharmacy stores to 18.9% in gas stations from oil companies. Retailers that entered an AVC had lower odds of underage sales violations in convenience stores (aOR=0.75, 95% CI [0.61-0.93]) and supermarkets (aOR=0.74, 95% CI [0.59-0.93]). For gas stations from oil companies and pharmacy stores, there were no significant differences in RVRm between stores with an AVC and stores without an AVC. We found that entering into AVCs is associated with fewer retail violations of underage sales for convenience stores and pharmacy stores. Continued efforts to strengthen the enforcement of AVCs and to expand AVCs to more states and other retail chains may improve youth tobacco control.

PMID: 29222044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases.

Chest. 2017 Dec 05;:

Authors: Kumar A, Cherian SV, Vassallo R, Yi ES, Ryu JH

Abstract
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes. While Respiratory bronchiolitis-ILD (RB-ILD), Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH)), and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP)) have well-established association with tobacco use, its role and impact on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases (CTD-ILD) is still ambiguous. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), is a relatively newly appreciated entity with distinct histopathologic features, but with unclear clinical ramifications. Increased implementation of lung cancer screening programs and utilization of CT scans in thoracic imaging have also resulted in increased identification of "incidental" or "subclinical" interstitial lung changes in smokers - the ensuing impact of which remains to be studied.

PMID: 29222007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Momentary assessment of impulsive choice and impulsive action: Reliability, stability, and correlates.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Momentary assessment of impulsive choice and impulsive action: Reliability, stability, and correlates.

Addict Behav. 2017 Nov 22;:

Authors: McCarthy DE, Minami H, Bold KW, Yeh VM, Chapman G

Abstract
Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons, and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in ambulatory assessments is not known, however. The current study evaluated two novel ambulatory measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Impulsive choice was measured with an eight-item delay discounting task designed to estimate the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards. Impulsive action was measured with a two-minute performance test to assess behavioral disinhibition (the inability to inhibit a motor response when signaled that such a response will not be rewarded). Valid data on impulsive choice were collected at 70% of scheduled reports and valid data on impulsive action were collected on 55% of scheduled reports, on average. Impulsive choice and action data were not normally distributed, but models of relations of these measures with within- and between-person covariates were robust across distributional assumptions. Intra-class correlations were substantial for both impulsive choice and action measures. Between persons, random intercepts in impulsive choice and action were significantly related to laboratory levels of their respective facets of impulsivity, but not self-reported or other facets of impulsivity. Validity of the ambulatory measures is supported by associations between abstinence from smoking and increased impulsivity, but challenged by an association between strong temptations to smoke and reduced impulsive choice. Results suggest that meaningful variance in impulsive choice and action can be captured using ambulatory methods, but that additional measure refinement is needed.

PMID: 29221928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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