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Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am

Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(1):19-28

Authors: Nguyen TT, Hoang MV

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam.
RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and seafood. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.

PMID: 29222878 [PubMed - in process]

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Phytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in tobacco plants.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Phytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in tobacco plants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Dec 08;:

Authors: Cvjetko P, Zovko M, Štefanić PP, Biba R, Tkalec M, Domijan AM, Vrček IV, Letofsky-Papst I, Šikić S, Balen B

Abstract
The small size of nanoparticles (NPs), with dimensions between 1 and 100 nm, results in unique chemical and physical characteristics, which is why they are implemented in various consumer products. Therefore, an important concern is the potential detrimental impact of NPs on the environment. As plants are a vital part of ecosystem, investigation of the phytotoxic effects of NPs is particularly interesting. This study investigated the potential phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and compared it with the effects of the same AgNO3 concentrations. Accumulation of silver in roots and leaves was equally efficient after both AgNP and AgNO3 treatment, with predominant Ag levels found in the roots. Exposure to AgNPs did not result in elevated values of oxidative stress parameters either in roots or in leaves, while AgNO3 induced oxidative stress in both plant tissues. In the presence of both AgNPs and AgNO3, root meristem cells became highly vacuolated, which indicates that vacuoles might be the primary storage target for accumulated Ag. Direct AgNP uptake by root cells was confirmed. Leaf ultrastructural studies revealed changes mainly in the size of chloroplasts of AgNP-treated and AgNO3-treated plants. All of these findings indicate that nano form of silver is less toxic to tobacco plants than silver ions.

PMID: 29222658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Occupational prestige trajectory and the risk of lung and head and neck cancer among men and women in France.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Occupational prestige trajectory and the risk of lung and head and neck cancer among men and women in France.

Int J Public Health. 2017 Dec 09;:

Authors: Menvielle G, Dugas J, Franck JE, Carton M, Trétarre B, Stücker I, Luce D, Icare group

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the associations between occupational prestige trajectories and lung and head and neck (HN) cancer risk and to assess to what extent smoking, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposures contribute to these associations.
METHODS: Using data from the ICARE case-control study (controls (2676 men/715 women), lung cancers (2019 men/558 women), HN cancers (1793 men/305 women), we defined occupational prestige trajectories using group-based modeling of longitudinal data. We conducted logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Among men, a gradient was observed from the downward "low to very low" trajectory to the stable very high trajectory. The associations were reduced when adjusting for tobacco and alcohol consumption and occupational exposures. Among women, when compared to the stable high trajectory, there was an increased cancer risk in all trajectories. The associations remained globally unchanged or even increased after adjustment for tobacco and alcohol consumption and did not change when adjusting for occupational exposures. The ORs were smaller for lung than for HN cancers in men.
CONCLUSIONS: Occupational prestige trajectory is strongly associated with lung and HN cancer risk in men and women.

PMID: 29222577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Illicit cigarette sales in Indian cities: findings from a retail survey.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Illicit cigarette sales in Indian cities: findings from a retail survey.

Tob Control. 2017 Dec 08;:

Authors: John RM, Ross H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate illicit cigarette consumption in India using a modified and replicable method and compare it with estimates generated by the tobacco industry and by a commercial entity.
METHODS: The study employed a modified approach to cigarette pack analysis suitable for countries with prevalent single-cigarette sales. Empty cigarette packs generated by 1 day's single-cigarette sales were collected directly from cigarette vendors in four large and four small cities covering the length and breadth of India. Ten areas were randomly selected in each city/town, and all shops selling cigarettes within 1 km of the central point were surveyed. A cigarette pack was classified as illicit if it had at least one of the following attributes: (a) a duty-free sign; (b) no graphic health warnings; (c) no textual health warnings; or (d) no mention of 'price inclusive of all taxes' or similar text.
FINDINGS: We collected 11 063 empty cigarette packs from 1727 retailers, and 2.73% of them were classified as illicit. The estimates varied substantially across locations with the highest prevalence of illicit packs in the town of Aizawl near the Bangladesh and Myanmar border (35.87%). The share of illicit cigarettes was found to be much higher (13.77%) among the cheapest cigarette brands. Illicit cigarettes are primarily distributed via formal stores rather than informal tea/pan shops.
CONCLUSION: Our estimate of the illicit cigarette market share of 2.73% casts serious doubt on the tobacco industry estimate of 20% and Euromonitor's estimate of 21.3%.

PMID: 29222108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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The effects of assurances of voluntary compliance on retail sales to minors in the United States: 2015-2016.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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The effects of assurances of voluntary compliance on retail sales to minors in the United States: 2015-2016.

Prev Med. 2017 Dec 05;:

Authors: Dai H, Catley D

Abstract
Multiple state attorneys generals have entered assurances of voluntary compliance (AVCs) with numerous national retail chains as an application of consumer protection laws to help prevent tobacco sales to minors. Little is known about the effectiveness of AVCs in reducing the violations of tobacco retailers for underage sales. We collected inspection data involving minors (n=53,832) on tobacco retailers in 2015 and 2016 from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) compliance check database. Inspections on 13 national retail chains were classified into four categories: gas stations from oil companies, convenience stores, pharmacy stores, and supermarkets. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to examine the effectiveness of AVCs, adjusted for state tobacco control policies, state youth smoking rates, and socio-economic status (SES) at census tracts. Overall the Retail Violation Rate for sales to minors (RVRm) significantly varied by retail category from 7.7% in pharmacy stores to 18.9% in gas stations from oil companies. Retailers that entered an AVC had lower odds of underage sales violations in convenience stores (aOR=0.75, 95% CI [0.61-0.93]) and supermarkets (aOR=0.74, 95% CI [0.59-0.93]). For gas stations from oil companies and pharmacy stores, there were no significant differences in RVRm between stores with an AVC and stores without an AVC. We found that entering into AVCs is associated with fewer retail violations of underage sales for convenience stores and pharmacy stores. Continued efforts to strengthen the enforcement of AVCs and to expand AVCs to more states and other retail chains may improve youth tobacco control.

PMID: 29222044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Current Concepts in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Smoking-Related Interstitial Lung Diseases.

Chest. 2017 Dec 05;:

Authors: Kumar A, Cherian SV, Vassallo R, Yi ES, Ryu JH

Abstract
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes. While Respiratory bronchiolitis-ILD (RB-ILD), Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH)), and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP)) have well-established association with tobacco use, its role and impact on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases (CTD-ILD) is still ambiguous. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), is a relatively newly appreciated entity with distinct histopathologic features, but with unclear clinical ramifications. Increased implementation of lung cancer screening programs and utilization of CT scans in thoracic imaging have also resulted in increased identification of "incidental" or "subclinical" interstitial lung changes in smokers - the ensuing impact of which remains to be studied.

PMID: 29222007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Momentary assessment of impulsive choice and impulsive action: Reliability, stability, and correlates.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Momentary assessment of impulsive choice and impulsive action: Reliability, stability, and correlates.

Addict Behav. 2017 Nov 22;:

Authors: McCarthy DE, Minami H, Bold KW, Yeh VM, Chapman G

Abstract
Impulsivity is associated with substance use, including tobacco use. The degree to which impulsivity fluctuates over time within persons, and the degree to which such intra-individual changes can be measured reliably and validly in ambulatory assessments is not known, however. The current study evaluated two novel ambulatory measures of impulsive choice and impulsive action. Impulsive choice was measured with an eight-item delay discounting task designed to estimate the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards. Impulsive action was measured with a two-minute performance test to assess behavioral disinhibition (the inability to inhibit a motor response when signaled that such a response will not be rewarded). Valid data on impulsive choice were collected at 70% of scheduled reports and valid data on impulsive action were collected on 55% of scheduled reports, on average. Impulsive choice and action data were not normally distributed, but models of relations of these measures with within- and between-person covariates were robust across distributional assumptions. Intra-class correlations were substantial for both impulsive choice and action measures. Between persons, random intercepts in impulsive choice and action were significantly related to laboratory levels of their respective facets of impulsivity, but not self-reported or other facets of impulsivity. Validity of the ambulatory measures is supported by associations between abstinence from smoking and increased impulsivity, but challenged by an association between strong temptations to smoke and reduced impulsive choice. Results suggest that meaningful variance in impulsive choice and action can be captured using ambulatory methods, but that additional measure refinement is needed.

PMID: 29221928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Genetic and environmental risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Genetic and environmental risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis.

Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Feb;31(1):3-18

Authors: Deane KD, Demoruelle MK, Kelmenson LB, Kuhn KA, Norris JM, Holers VM

Abstract
Multiple genetic and environmental factors have been associated with an increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of these, the strongest associations have been seen with female sex, a family history of RA, the genetic factor the "shared epitope," and exposure to tobacco smoke. There is also renewed interest in mucosal inflammation and microbial factors as contributors to the development of RA. However, the identification of a "preclinical" period of RA that can be defined as local or systemic autoimmunity as measured by autoantibodies and other biomarkers prior to the development of clinically apparent synovitis suggests that the risk factors for RA are acting long prior to first clinical evidence of IA. As such, a major challenge to the field will be to investigate the full spectrum of the development of RA, from initiation and propagation of autoimmunity during preclinical RA and transition to clinically apparent synovitis and classifiable RA, to determine which genetic and environmental factors are important at each stage of disease development. Understanding the exact role and timing of action of risk factors for RA is especially important given the advent of prevention trials in RA, and the hope that a full understanding of genetic and environmental factors in RA could lead to effective preventive interventions.

PMID: 29221595 [PubMed - in process]

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Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in South Africa.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in South Africa.

Ann Glob Health. 2017 May - Aug;83(3-4):501-508

Authors: Shangase ZP, Tsoka-Gwegweni JM, Egbe CO

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa.
METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed. The sample included 15 men and 5 women aged 18-70 years who self-identified as smokers. Open-ended questions were used to explore barriers militating against smoking cessation among this sample. Data were analyzed with the aid of the software QSR NVivo10.
FINDINGS: Personal and structural-level barriers (factors) to smoking cessation were identified. Personal factors included addiction and non-addiction-related barriers. Addiction-related barriers included smoking history, cravings for a cigarette, smoking as part of a daily routine, and failed quit attempts. Non-addiction-related barriers included lack of knowledge about quit strategies, psychosocial stress, lack of the willpower to quit smoking, and the influence of peers. Structural barriers included ineffective health education programs, lack of extramural activities when on admission in hospital leading to a lot of spare time, lack of smoking cessation interventions, and access to cigarettes within and around the hospital environment. Patients expressed interest in smoking cessation and conveyed their frustration at the lack of appropriate support to do so.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings reiterate the need for smoking cessation intervention to be incorporated as an integral component of DR-TB management in South Africa. Many patients expressed an interest in pharmacological aids and psychological support to help them to quit smoking. Additionally, offering extramural activities and enforcing smoke-free policies in hospital facilities will help to reduce patients' access to cigarettes while at the hospital.

PMID: 29221522 [PubMed - in process]

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China's Efforts on Management, Surveillance, and Research of Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Scorecard Project.

December 10, 2017 - 9:40am
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China's Efforts on Management, Surveillance, and Research of Noncommunicable Diseases: NCD Scorecard Project.

Ann Glob Health. 2017 May - Aug;83(3-4):489-500

Authors: Zhu XL, Luo JS, Zhang XC, Zhai Y, Wu J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising dramatically throughout the world. Aspects of researches concerned with the improvement and development of prevention and control of NCDs have been conducted. Furthermore, the influence of most determinants of the major NCDs has showed that a broad and deep response involving stakeholders in different sectors is required in the prevention and control of NCDs.
OBJECTIVE: China has experienced an increase in NCDs in a short period compared with many countries. To address the burden of NCDs in China, it is important to learn about the progress that has been made in prevention and control of NCDs in China and worldwide, informed by opinions of stakeholders in different areas.
METHODS: In 2014, GRAND South developed the NCD Scorecard instrument to evaluate progress of NCD prevention and control in 23 countries through a 2-round Delphi process. The scorecard included 51 indicators in 4 domains: governance, surveillance and research, prevention and risk factors, and health system response. Stakeholders were then selected in the areas of government, nongovernmental organizations, private sectors, and academia to join the NCD Scorecard survey. Indicators of progress were scored by stakeholders from 0 (no activity), 1 (present but not adequate), and 2 (adequate) to 3 (highly adequate) and then the percentage of progress in each domain was calculated, representing the current situation in each country.
FINDINGS: There were 14 indicators in the domains of governance and surveillance and research. Of 429 stakeholders worldwide, 41 in China participated in the survey. China scored in the top 5 out of all participating countries in those 2 domains, scoring 67% in governance and 64% in surveillance and research. Indicators on which China scored particularly well included having a well-resourced unit or department responsible for NCDs, having a strong national system for recording the cause of all deaths, and having a system of NCD surveillance. Areas where China had the greatest need for improvement included increasing taxes on tobacco and addressing the needs of the population older than age 70 dying from major NCDs.
CONCLUSION: In China the burden of disease of NCDs and disabilities remains serious, although China has put significant efforts into its governance and surveillance and research. To improve, further action is needed on reducing tobacco consumption, increasing investment in the national health budget, and increasing the focus on system construction.

PMID: 29221521 [PubMed - in process]

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tobacco; +24 new citations

December 9, 2017 - 7:39am

24 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/09

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +24 new citations

December 9, 2017 - 6:24am

24 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/09

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +31 new citations

December 8, 2017 - 1:11pm

31 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/08

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +21 new citations

December 7, 2017 - 8:09am

21 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/07

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +21 new citations

December 7, 2017 - 6:39am

21 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/07

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +19 new citations

December 6, 2017 - 8:25am

19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/06

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +19 new citations

December 6, 2017 - 6:09am

19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/06

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +34 new citations

December 5, 2017 - 8:09am

34 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/05

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +34 new citations

December 5, 2017 - 6:39am

34 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2017/12/05

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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Do mental health consumers want to improve their long-term disease risk behaviours? A survey of over 2000 psychiatric inpatients.

December 4, 2017 - 4:39pm

Do mental health consumers want to improve their long-term disease risk behaviours? A survey of over 2000 psychiatric inpatients.

Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2017 Dec 02;:

Authors: Bartlem K, Bailey J, Metse A, Asara A, Wye P, Clancy R, Wiggers J, Bowman J

Abstract
Policies and clinical guidelines acknowledge the role mental health services have in addressing the physical health of individuals with a mental illness; however, little research has explored interest in reducing health risk behaviours or the acceptability of receiving support to reduce such risks among psychiatric inpatients. This study estimated the prevalence of four long-term disease risk behaviours (tobacco smoking, hazardous alcohol consumption, inadequate fruit and/or vegetable consumption, and inadequate physical activity); patient interest in reducing these risks; and acceptability of being provided care to do so during a psychiatric inpatient stay. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 2075 inpatients from four inpatient psychiatric facilities in one health district in Australia (October 2012-April 2014). Prevalence of risk behaviours ranged from 50.2% (inadequate physical activity) to 94.8% (inadequate fruit and/or vegetable consumption). The majority of respondents (88.4%) had more than one risk behaviour, and most were seriously considering improving their risk behaviours (47.6% to 65.3%). The majority (80.4%) agreed that it would be acceptable to be provided support and advice to change such behaviours during their psychiatric inpatient stay. Some diagnoses were associated with smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption, interest in reducing alcohol consumption and increasing fruit and/or vegetable consumption, and acceptability of receiving advice and support. The findings reinforce the need and opportunity for psychiatric inpatient facilities to address the long-term disease risk behaviours of their patients.

PMID: 29197143 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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