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School health promotion and use of drugs among students in Southern Brazil.

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School health promotion and use of drugs among students in Southern Brazil.

Rev Saude Publica. 2018;52:58

Authors: Paz FM, Teixeira VA, Pinto RO, Andersen CS, Fontoura LP, Castro LC, Pattussi MP, Horta RL

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the health promotion conditions in schools and the consumption of alcohol and other drugs by students.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 3,464 students aged 12 to 17 from all schools of the cities of Lajeado and Sapiranga, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and 53 managers from the same schools; the data was collected in 2012. Reports of the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs in 2012 were used as outcomes, and the health promotion score in the school environment was used as the exposure of interest. We submitted the data to multilevel analysis.
RESULTS: The prevalence of the annual use of tobacco was 9.8% (95%CI 8.8-10.8), alcohol was 46.2% (95%CI 44.5-47.8), and other drugs was 10.9% (95%CI 9.9-12.0). In the crude analysis, only the use of tobacco was associated with less health promoting schools (OR = 1.89, 95%CI 1.16-3.09) when compared to those with better conditions. This association lost statistical significance in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.27, 95%CI 0.74-2.19).
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of the school environment on the use of drugs, especially tobacco and alcohol, are manifested mainly by the individual and family conditions of the adolescents.

PMID: 29791679 [PubMed - in process]

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The Belfast Youth Development Study (BYDS): A prospective cohort study of the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use from adolescence to adulthood in Northern Ireland.

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The Belfast Youth Development Study (BYDS): A prospective cohort study of the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use from adolescence to adulthood in Northern Ireland.

PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0195192

Authors: Higgins K, McLaughlin A, Perra O, McCartan C, McCann M, Percy A, Jordan JA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS), one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood. The paper provides an overview of BYDS as a longitudinal data source for investigating substance misuse and outlines the study measures, sample retention and characteristics. We also outline how the BYDS data have been used to date and highlight areas ripe for future work by interested researchers.
METHODS: The study began in 2000/1 when participants (n = 3,834) were pupils in their first year of post-primary education (age 10/11 years, school year 8) from over 40 schools in Northern Ireland. Children were followed during the school years: Year 9 (in 2002; aged 12; n = 4,343), Year 10 (in 2003; aged 13; n = 4,522), Year 11 (in 2004; aged 14; n = 3,965) and Year 12 (in 2005; aged 15; n = 3,830) and on two more occasions: 2006/07 (aged 16/17; n = 2,335) and 2010/11 (aged 20/21; n = 2,087). Data were collected on substance use, family, schools, neighbourhoods, offending behaviour and mental health. The most novel aspect of the study was the collection of detailed social network data via friendship nominations allowing the investigation of the spread of substance use via friendship networks. In 2004 (school year 11; respondents aged 14), a sub-sample of participants' parents (n = 1,097) and siblings (n = 211) also completed measures on substance use and family dynamics.
RESULTS: The most recent wave (in 2010/2011; respondents aged 20/21 years) indicated lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis among the cohort was 94, 70 and 45 per cent, respectively. The paper charts the development of drug use behaviour and some of the key results to date are presented. We have also identified a number of key areas ripe for analysis by interested researchers including sexual health and education.
CONCLUSIONS: We have established a cohort with detailed data from adolescence to young adulthood, supplemented with parent and sibling reports and peer network data. The dataset, allowing for investigation of trajectories of adolescent substance use, associated factors and subsequent long-term outcomes, constitutes an important resource for longitudinal substance misuse research. A planned further wave as the cohort enter their late twenties and potential to link to administrative data sources, will further enrich the datasets.

PMID: 29791433 [PubMed - in process]

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Association of Smokeless Tobacco Use and Oral Cancer: A Systematic Global Review and Meta-Analysis.

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Association of Smokeless Tobacco Use and Oral Cancer: A Systematic Global Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 May 22;:

Authors: Asthana S, Labani S, Kailash U, Sinha DN, Mehrotra R

Abstract
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco products have been linked to precancerous and cancers of oral cavity for long. Evidence was available on the association between smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and oral cancers at regional but not at global level. Present meta-analysis is aimed to evaluate the risk of oral cancer with the use of SLT products among "ever" versus "never" users.
Method: Studies published for the period (1960-2016) are retrieved using Pubmed, Indmed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar search engines for the subject "ever" versus "never" users of SLT products and estimated the risk association with oral cancer. Summary odds ratios (relative risk) are estimated and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects model.
Results: Thirty-seven studies from four of six WHO regions, Southeast Asia region (SEAR), the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), Europe, and region of Americas (North and South) are included in the analysis. Significant risk with SLT products with oral cancer was found for SEAR (4.44, 95% CI = 3.51 to 5.61) and for EMR (1.28, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.56). Significantly higher risk (p < .001) was found for females (5.83, 95% CI = 2.93 to 11.58). Product wise analysis for different SLT products revealed various levels of risk viz. gutkha (8.67, 95% CI = 3.59 to 20.93), pan tobacco / betel liquid (7.18, 95% CI = 5.48 to 9.41), oral snuff (4.18, 50% CI = 2.37 to 7.38), Mainpuri tobacco (3.32, 95% CI = 1.32 to 8.36), and snus (0.86, 95% CI = 0.58 to 1.29).
Conclusion: A significant positive association was observed between SLT use and the risk of oral cancer, in SEAR, EMRs, and among women users.
Implications: The present meta-analysis demonstrates SLT product use and the risk of oral cancer at global level. Moreover, the present analysis provided data on the risk associated with individual SLT product. The results fulfil the gap in the data on independent effect of individual SLT product use on the outcome of oral cancer at global level, conclusively. Chewing SLT products was associated with higher risk of oral cancer than other types of SLT. This can serve as a useful tool for policy makers in forming strict policies in controlling SLT menace. Hence, we propose that in addition to smoking, efforts should be directed towards SLT product cessation as well in reducing oral cancer incidence.

PMID: 29790998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Spirometry testing among the homeless.

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Spirometry testing among the homeless.

Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018 Apr 18;:

Authors: Romaszko J, Buciński A, Romaszko AM, Doboszyńska A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Many literature reports have indicated the fact that the percentage of active smokers among the homeless is high, often several times higher than that of the general population. The homeless are known to have worse spirometric parameters than the general population.
OBJECTIVES: The question of what the principal and exclusive cause of airway obstruction among the homeless is remains unanswered. Verification of the above-mentioned hypothesis is possible by comparing the spirometric parameters in homeless people with those in the general population, based on the data related to subgroups with similar tobacco smoke exposure, which are homogenous in terms of sex, race and age.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The spirometric parameters in 58 homeless male smokers were compared with those in 55 male smokers living normal lives. Neither group differed in age, duration of smoking or the number of pack-years. All of the subjects were Caucasian.
RESULTS: The mean values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/ FVC, both corrected and expressed as absolute figures, were lower amongst the smoking homeless men than amongst men living normal lives. In 27.59% of the homeless subjests not receiving treatment for lung diseases, airway obstruction was identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that smoking is not the only cause of the worse spirometric parameters found among the homeless.

PMID: 29790680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Assessment of hospital based prevalence of oral cancer among population of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

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Assessment of hospital based prevalence of oral cancer among population of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

J Exp Ther Oncol. 2018 May;12(3):193-199

Authors: Raj A, Ramesh G, Pathak S

Abstract
Background: Oral cancer incidence depends on both qualitative and quantitative factors wherein the incidence of oral cancer in patients with smoking and tobacco chewing habit is 8.4 times higher than that of patients with no habit.
Aim: To understand about the prevalence of oral cancer in population of Kanpur reported to the hospital and analyse the association with age, gender and tobacco habit.
Material and Method: All 320 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed histopathologically, since January 2007 to December 2016, were retrieved from the archives and a retrospective study was conducted along with association with the variables such as age, gender, site, habit and histopathological type.
Results: A total of 71 cases were reported in the age group of 30-39 (22.18%) and 60 cases (18.75%) were seen to be below 30yrs. Among individuals with habit, 135 (42.18%) were tobacco chewers and smoking was prevalent in about 48 (15%). The prevalence was more in males 37 (15.22%). Amongst both males (44.03%) and females (48.05%) gingivo-buccal sulcus was the most common site. The least common site was seen to be lip with only 10 (3.12%) patients. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was common in both males and females with 155 (63.78%) and 47 (61.03%) respectively. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was only reported in 4(1.64%) males.
Conclusion: Early detection of these oral cancers will enable appropriate clinical management and monitoring. Moreover, improving the incidence, mortality, and survival rates of oral cancer requires a multi-tier structural approach that targets society, dentists, communities, and the individual.

PMID: 29790309 [PubMed - in process]

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Sources of household air pollution and their association with fine particulate matter in low-income urban homes in India.

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Sources of household air pollution and their association with fine particulate matter in low-income urban homes in India.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2018 May 23;:

Authors: Elf JL, Kinikar A, Khadse S, Mave V, Suryavanshi N, Gupte N, Kulkarni V, Patekar S, Raichur P, Breysse PN, Gupta A, Golub JE

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Household air pollution (HAP) is poorly characterized in low-income urban Indian communities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire assessing sources of HAP and 24 h household concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) were collected in a sample of low-income homes in Pune, India.
RESULTS: In 166 homes, the median 24 h average concentration of PM2.5 was 167 μg/m3 (IQR: 106-294). Although kerosene and wood use were highly prevalent (22% and 25% of homes, respectively), primarily as secondary fuel sources, high PM2.5 concentrations were also found in 95 (57%) homes reporting LPG use alone (mean 141 μg/m3; IQR: 92-209). In adjusted linear regression, log PM2.5 concentration was positively associated with wood cooking fuel (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0), mosquito coils (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), and winter season (GMR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4-2.2). Households in the highest quartile of exposure were positively associated with wood cooking fuel (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), incense (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), mosquito coils (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and winter season (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4).
DISCUSSION: We observed high concentrations of PM2.5 and identified associated determinants in urban Indian homes.

PMID: 29789668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Nursing Intervention Practices for Smoking Cessation: A Large Survey in Hong Kong.

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Nursing Intervention Practices for Smoking Cessation: A Large Survey in Hong Kong.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 May 22;15(5):

Authors: Mak YW, Loke AY, Wong FKY

Abstract
Previous studies have shown that nursing interventions are effective in helping people to stop smoking, but that the participation of nurses in tobacco control activities has been far from satisfactory. The primary objective of this study is to identify factors that encourage or discourage nurses from participating in providing smoking-cessation interventions to their clients, based on the 5 A's (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) framework. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4413 nurses in Hong Kong from different clinical specialties. A logistics regression analysis found that predictors for the practicing of all of the 5 A's are nurses who want to receive training in smoking-cessation interventions, those who have received such training, and those who are primarily working in a medical unit or in ambulatory/outpatient settings. The regression model also showed that attitude towards smoking cessation was positively associated with all of the 5 A's. The results indicate a need to encourage and provide nurses with opportunities to receive training on smoking-cessation interventions. Strategies to persuade nurses to provide smoking-cessation interventions are also important, since nurses are motivated to perform smoking-cessation interventions when they feel a stronger sense of mission to control tobacco use.

PMID: 29789484 [PubMed - in process]

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Impact of tobacco-specific nitrosamine-derived DNA adducts on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in human cells.

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Impact of tobacco-specific nitrosamine-derived DNA adducts on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in human cells.

J Biol Chem. 2018 May 22;:

Authors: Du H, Leng J, Wang P, Li L, Wang Y

Abstract
The tobacco-derived nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are known human carcinogens. Following metabolic activation, NNK and NNN can induce a number of DNA lesions, including several 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl (POB) adducts. However, it remains unclear to what extent these lesions affect the efficiency and accuracy of DNA replication and how their replicative bypass is influenced by translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. In this study, we investigated the effects of three stable POB DNA adducts (i.e. O2-POB-dT, O4-POB-dT and O6-POB-dG) on the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication in HEK293T human cells. We found that, when situated in a double-stranded plasmid, O2-POB-dT and O4-POB-dT moderately blocked DNA replication and induced exclusively T-to-A (~14.9%) and T-to-C (~35.2%) mutations, respectively. On the other hand, O6-POB-dG slightly impeded DNA replication, and this lesion elicited primarily the G-to-A transition (~75%) together with a low frequency of the G-to-T transversion (~3%). By conducting replication studies in isogenic cells in which specific TLS DNA polymerases (Pols) were deleted by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we observed that multiple TLS Pols, especially Pol η and Pol ζ, are involved in bypassing these lesions. Our findings reveal the cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of specific POB DNA adducts and unravel the roles of several TLS polymerases in the replicative bypass of these adducts in human cells. Together, these results provide important new knowledge about the biological consequences of POB adducts.

PMID: 29789427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Healthcare resource utilisation by patients with coronary heart disease receiving a lifestyle-focused text message support program: an analysis from the TEXT ME study.

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Healthcare resource utilisation by patients with coronary heart disease receiving a lifestyle-focused text message support program: an analysis from the TEXT ME study.

Aust J Prim Health. 2018 May 23;:

Authors: Thakkar J, Redfern J, Khan E, Atkins E, Ha J, Vo K, Thiagalingam A, Chow CK

Abstract
The 'Tobacco, Exercise and Diet Messages' (TEXT ME) study was a 6-month, single-centre randomised clinical trial (RCT) that found a text message support program improved levels of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The current analyses examined whether receipt of text messages influenced participants' engagement with conventional healthcare resources. The TEXT ME study database (N=710) was linked with routinely collected health department databases. Number of doctor consultations, investigations and cardiac medication prescriptions in the two study groups were compared. The most frequently accessed health service was consultations with a General Practitioner (mean 7.1, s.d. 5.4). The numbers of medical consultations, biochemical tests or cardiac-specific investigations were similar between the study groups. There was at least one prescription registered for statin, ACEI/ARBs and β-blockers in 79, 66 and 50% of patients respectively, with similar refill rates in both the study groups. The study identified TEXT ME text messaging program did not increase use of Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) captured healthcare services. The observed benefits of TEXT ME reflect direct effects of intervention independent of conventional healthcare resource engagement.

PMID: 29789100 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview.

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Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical overview.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2018 May 23;:1-9

Authors: Mandolini GM, Lazzaretti M, Pigoni A, Oldani L, Delvecchio G, Brambilla P

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms. Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, current evidences suggest that CBD has the ability to reduce psychotic, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms by means of several hypothesised pharmacological properties. However, further studies should include larger randomised controlled samples and investigate the impact of CBD on biological measures in order to correlate CBD's clinical effects to potential modifications of neurotransmitters signalling and structural and functional cerebral changes.

PMID: 29789034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Vitamin C prevents memory impairment induced by waterpipe smoke: role of oxidative stress.

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Vitamin C prevents memory impairment induced by waterpipe smoke: role of oxidative stress.

Inhal Toxicol. 2018 May 22;:1-8

Authors: Alqudah MAY, Alzoubi KH, Ma'abrih GM, Khabour OF

Abstract
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) was previously shown to be associated with memory deficits, which were related to oxidative stress. Vitamin C (VitC) has established antioxidant properties against memory deficits associated with several diseases and conditions. In this study, the potential protective effect of VitC on memory impairment induced by WTS exposure was evaluated in a rat model. VitC was administered to animals via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks). At the same period, animals were exposed to WTS for one hour/day, 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Using radial arm water maze (RAWM), behavioral tests were conducted to evaluate the spatial learning and memory. In addition, hippocampal levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed. WTS exposure impaired both short- and long-term memory (p < .05). On the other hand, VitC protected memory impairment induced by WTS (p < .05). Moreover, VitC prevented the reduction in hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG (p < .05) induced by WTS. Furthermore, WTS reduced hippocampus activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase, which were also normalized by VitC treatment. However, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were not changed by WTS and/or by VitC (p > .05). In conclusion, WTS resulted in inducing memory impairment, which was prevented by VitC administration. This could be related to preserving hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms by VitC during WTS exposure.

PMID: 29788804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Gaming under the influence: An exploratory study.

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Gaming under the influence: An exploratory study.

J Behav Addict. 2018 May 23;:1-6

Authors: Škařupová K, Blinka L, Ťápal A

Abstract
Background and aims Association between substance use and excessive play of online games exists both in theory and research. However, no study to date examined playing online games under the influence of licit and illicit drugs. Methods We questioned a convenient online sample of 3,952 Czech online gamers on their experiences and motives of using caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, psychoactive pharmaceuticals, and illicit drugs while playing massive multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Results The results showed low prevalence of illicit drug use while playing online games. Substance use was positively associated with intensity of gaming and both addiction and engagement; psychoactive substances with stimulating effect were linked to higher engagement and gaming intensity, whereas use of sedatives was associated with higher addiction score. Substance use varied slightly with the preference of game genre. Discussion Drug use while playing appears as behavior, which is mostly not related to gaming - it concerns mostly caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis. For some users, however, drug use was fueled by motivations toward improving their cognitive enhancement and gaming performance.

PMID: 29788755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Cigarette Prices and Smoking Cessation-Letter.

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Cigarette Prices and Smoking Cessation-Letter.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 10;26(10):1577

Authors: Braillon A

PMID: 28971998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Response to &quot;The potential impact of body mass index, cognitive dissonance, and stigma&quot;.

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Response to "The potential impact of body mass index, cognitive dissonance, and stigma".

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 10;24(10):2024

Authors: Ruddock HK, Christiansen P, Jones A, Robinson E, Field M, Hardman CA

PMID: 27601316 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Outdoor second-hand cigarette smoke significantly affects air quality.

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Outdoor second-hand cigarette smoke significantly affects air quality.

Eur Respir J. 2016 09;48(3):918-20

Authors: Ruprecht AA, De Marco C, Pozzi P, Mazza R, Munarini E, Di Paco A, Paredi P, Invernizzi G, Boffi R

PMID: 27230450 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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tobacco; +33 new citations

May 23, 2018 - 10:56am

33 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2018/05/23

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +25 new citations

May 22, 2018 - 9:09am

25 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2018/05/22

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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tobacco; +25 new citations

May 22, 2018 - 6:24am

25 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:

tobacco

These pubmed results were generated on 2018/05/22

PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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Redeveloping Substance Abuse Treatment for Military Personnel.

May 21, 2018 - 7:09am
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Redeveloping Substance Abuse Treatment for Military Personnel.

Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2018 May 19;20(6):45

Authors: Schrader C, Lenton A, Gertonson P, Rahimi A

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the prevailing evidence surrounding treatment of substance use disorder (SUD), with specific focus on alcohol, tobacco, and prescription opiates, and how it informs guidelines for treating active duty military. We survey the evidence regarding preventive screening, treatment, and relapse prevention in substance misuse as it pertains to patient-centered care of the service member.
RECENT FINDINGS: Holistic, patient-centered care with an emphasis on identifying maladaptive use or dependence prior to progression to chronic disease is now recognized as the evidenced approach to treating substance use disorders. Early patient-guided intervention with combined behavioral and pharmacologic therapies leads to better outcomes, including greater functional status, lower relapse rates, and decreased rate of psychiatric and other comorbidities. The military has prioritized a patient-centered approach to screening, assessing, and treating SUD. Recent guideline updates represent a progressive, patient-centered approach in delivering unprecedented access to care, serving as a positive example in treating what is widely accepted as one of the country's most pressing public health concerns.

PMID: 29779198 [PubMed - in process]

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&quot;Cell grafting&quot;: a new approach for transferring cytoplasmic or nuclear genome between plants.

May 21, 2018 - 7:09am
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"Cell grafting": a new approach for transferring cytoplasmic or nuclear genome between plants.

Plant Cell Rep. 2018 May 19;:

Authors: Sidorov V, Armstrong C, Ream T, Ye X, Saltarikos A

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: A new method based on mixing and wounding of callus tissue was used to transfer plastid or nuclear DNA between cells. Methods alternative to sexual hybridization can be powerful tools for crop improvement. We have developed a new hybridization technology based on wounding a mixed population of cells of two parents growing in vitro as callus ("cell grafting"), and have demonstrated the utility of this system for plastid or nuclear genome transfer. In our proof-of concept experiments, non-organized growing tissue (callus) from tobacco var. Samsun, carrying the nuclear marker genes nptII and uidA (GUS), and tobacco var. Petit Havana, carrying aadA and gfp genes in the plastid genome, were mixed together, wounded with a razor blade and placed for regeneration on selection medium containing both spectinomycin (aadA) and paromomycin (nptII). Plants with aadA and gfp positive plastids and nptII plus uidA positive nuclear background were produced. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of all four genes in these plants. Morphology and ploidy level analysis confirmed the production of "diploid" plants similar to var. Samsun possessing transformed plastids from var. Petit Havana. Reciprocal crosses between the experimentally produced plants and wild type tobacco confirmed maternal inheritance of aadA and gfp and Mendelian inheritance of nptII and uidA. For transfer of nuclear traits between plants we used two nuclear-transformed parents with different selectable markers; one with nptII (paromomycin resistant), and another with aadA (spectinomycin resistant). Plants resistant to both antibiotics which also had different visible markers were produced.

PMID: 29779094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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