Buprenorphine News Feed

Brain Emotion Systems, Personality, Hopelessness, Self/Other Perception, and Gambling Cognition: A Structural Equation Model

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 7:00pm
Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the relations between gambling, brain emotion systems, personality, self/other perception, and hopelessness in an Italian community. Dimensions of gambling, positive and negative emotions, self/other perception, personality and hopelessness were assessed in a community sample of 235 adults aged 19–59 years. Two structural models were tested. We found a significant correlation between problem gambling and impulsivity, which in association with aggressivity and negative personality dimensions may help explain the psychopathology factor, i.e. a latent variable involving neurotic personality, hopelessness, high sensation seeking, low metacognitive responsiveness, and disorganized patterns of interpersonal relationships. These results co...

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Obama Signals Support For Changing Course In Federal War On Medical Marijuana

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 4:30pm
In an interview that will air for the first time this weekend as part of CNN's latest installment of its medical marijuana documentary series "WEED 3," President Barack Obama signals support for medical marijuana and for rolling back the federal government's war on drugs. CNN's chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta, a vocal supporter of the legalization of medical marijuana, asks Obama in the documentary if he supports the goals of a historic Senate bill introduced in March that seeks to make several major changes in federal law, including drastically reducing the federal government's ability to crack down on state-legal medical marijuana programs, encouraging more research into the plant and reclassifying marijuana as a less dangerous drug. "You know, I think I'd have to take a look ...

Example of an investigation of an "emergent" phenomenon in addiction vigilance: the case of methylphenidate - Micallef J, Frauger E, Palmaro A, Boucherie Q, Lapeyre Mestre M.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 11:48am
Abuse of and addiction to medication are a major public health issue which is evolving fast, in particular in countries like France, one of the largest consumers of medication in Europe. As a single source of information is not generally sufficient to meas... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))

SKY Toxicology Donates Twelve New Addiction Treatment Scholarships and...

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 8:35am
SKY Toxicology congratulates 12 new winners of the SKY Toxicology “Pass The Torch” Scholarship Awards. SKY Toxicology donates $10,000 scholarships to addiction treatment facilities for patients who...(PRWeb April 16, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/04/prweb12657080.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)

Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Plasma Concentration of the Appetite-Regulating Peptide Ghrelin

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 7:26am
Conclusions: Early abstinence from tobacco smoking seems to be associated with increased plasma concentration of the orexigenic peptide acetylated ghrelin. This could be one reason for increased food craving during nicotine withdrawal and subsequent weight gain. Smokers might compensate these effects by increasing tobacco intake.Ann Nutr Metab 2015;66:155-161 (Source: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism)

Buprenorphine maintenance program with contracted work/education and low tolerance for non-prescribed drug use: a cohort study of outcome for women and men after seven years.

Pub Med: Keyword Buprenorphine - April 17, 2015 - 6:30am

Buprenorphine maintenance program with contracted work/education and low tolerance for non-prescribed drug use: a cohort study of outcome for women and men after seven years.

BMC Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 24;15(1):56

Authors: Öhlin L, Fridell M, Nyhlén A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A seven-year follow-up of heroin dependent patients treated in a buprenorphine-maintenance program combining contracted work/education and low tolerance for non-prescribed drug use. Gender-specific differences in outcome were analysed.
METHODS: A consecutively admitted cohort of 135 men and 35 women, with eight years of heroin abuse/dependence on average was admitted to enhanced buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Standardized interviews, diagnostic assessments of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial conditions were conducted at admission and at follow-ups. Outcome associated with gender was reported for abstinence, retention, psychiatric symptoms, employment and criminal convictions.
RESULTS: 148 patients started treatment. After seven years, 94/148 patients (64%) were retained in the program, employed and abstinent from drugs and alcohol. Women had more continuous abstinence, retention and employment than men (76% versus 60%). After one year patients with a high-risk consumption of alcohol were no longer heavy consumers of alcohol and remained so throughout the study (p < .001). All women regained custody of their children. At admission, more women than men had been admitted for psychiatric disorders (70%/44%) and to compulsory care for substance abuse (30%/18%). Initial gender differences of psychiatric co-morbidity decreased and were no longer significant after one year. More men than women had been imprisoned (62% versus 27%) or in non-institutional care (80% versus 49%). Criminal convictions were reduced from 1751 convictions at admission to 742 (58%) after seven years. Eight patients in the entire cohort died over the 7 years (0.7% per year). One patient died in the completers group while still in the program (0.1% per year).
CONCLUSIONS: After seven years, two thirds of the patients in the program were abstinent and employed. Convictions ceased in the completers group. One patient died in the completers group. Women had superior long-term outcome compared to men: more continuous abstinence, employment and fewer convictions. Women also lived with their children to a higher extent than men. The positive outcome highlights the importance of maintaining high structure in combining pharmacological treatment with a focus on employment and psychological treatment and low tolerance for non-prescribed drug use.

PMID: 25881164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of buprenorphine in prolonging the duration of post-operative analgesia in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison between bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and buprenorphine combination.

Pub Med: Keyword Buprenorphine - April 17, 2015 - 6:30am

Role of buprenorphine in prolonging the duration of post-operative analgesia in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison between bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and buprenorphine combination.

Indian J Urol. 2015 Apr-Jun;31(2):132-5

Authors: Nirmala J, Kumar A, Devraj R, Vidyasagar S, Ramachandraiah G, Murthy PV

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment of choice for large renal calculi. Pain around the nephrostomy tube is a clinical problem and we have previously reported alleviation of pain by peritubal block with bupivacaine, which lasted for 14 hours. The present study aimed to investigate the role of buprenorphine and bupivacaine combination in prolonging the duration of analgesia in peritubal block.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken in 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II patients who were scheduled for PCNL. Group I patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine and group II patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg of buprenorphine. Peritubal infiltration was given under fluoroscopic guidance along the nephrostomy tube from the renal capsule to the skin. Post-operative pain was assessed by Visual Analog Score (VAS), dynamic VAS (DVAS), sedation score, duration of analgesia and number of rescue analgesic demands. Rescue analgesia was inj tramadol 1 mg/kg IV if pain score exceeded 3.
RESULTS: Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Median duration of analgesia was 16 h in group I and 20 h in group II (P = 0.002). The maximum median VAS was 4 in group I and 2 in group II (P = 0.002). The median area under curve (AUC) for VAS was 7 and 5 in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.047). The median maximum DVAS in group I was 6 and 4 in group II. The median AUC for DVAS in 24 h was 16 in group I and 15 in group II (P = 0.017).
CONCLUSIONS: Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg buprenorphine around a nephrostomy tube increased the duration of analgesia following PCNL without any side-effects.

PMID: 25878415 [PubMed]

[Editorial] All in for alcohol awareness

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 5:15am
With so much recent attention paid to the legalisation and use of recreational marijuana and in the deadly wake of synthetic psychoactive street compounds, alcohol, the archetypal drug, is often overlooked. In efforts to bring the deleterious effects and burden of alcohol abuse and addiction to the fore, the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, has designated every April since 1987 Alcohol Awareness Month in the USA. This year's theme is, “For the Health of It: Early Education on Alcoholism and Addiction”, promoting the prevention of early alcohol use, increasing the recognition of the impact of alcoholism, and reducing the stigma around treatment for alcoholism. (Source: LANCET)

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Binge drinking during adolescence disrupts se homeostasis and its main hepatic selenoprotein expression.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: Due to the above, and to find whether a Se supplementation therapy improves these situations, it would be interesting to explore in more depth the relationship between Se, the high oxidation found, and the depressed immune response reported in BD adolescents. PMID: 25864381 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Determining ethyl glucuronide cutoffs when detecting self-reported alcohol use in addiction treatment patients.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: For detecting alcohol use for >24 hours, the 200 ng/ml cutoff level is recommended for use as a research and clinical outcome. PMID: 25866234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Alcohol and sleep review: sound statistics and valid conclusions.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
Authors: Ebrahim I, Fenwick P, Williams AJ, Shapiro C PMID: 25870937 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Alcohol and sleep review: flawed design, methods, and statistics cannot support conclusions.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
Authors: Pressman MR, Grunstein RR, Mahowald MW, Schenck CH, Montplaisir JY, Bornemann MC, Zadra A, Buchanan PR PMID: 25871341 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

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The behavioral economics of driving after drinking among college drinkers.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: DAD is associated with elevated/inelastic demand and less sensitivity to a hypothetical driving scenario. Drinkers with elevated demand should be prioritized for DAD intervention efforts. PMID: 25871945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Alcoholic liver disease: the gut microbiome and liver cross talk.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
Authors: Hartmann P, Seebauer CT, Schnabl B Abstract Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with ALD have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier, or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental ALD. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of ALD. This review highlights c...

Expression of CYP2E1 and CYP2U1 Proteins in Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex: Influence of Alcoholism and Smoking.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of CYP2E1 and CYP2U1 protein expression in human AMG. Our results suggest that CYP2U1 expression may be modulated by alcohol and tobacco, with potential consequent effects on the metabolism of drugs and endogenous chemicals by this enzyme. PMID: 25872594 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Brief Report: Genetics of Alcoholic Cirrhosis-GenomALC Multinational Study.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment of participants for a GWAS of alcoholic cirrhosis has proved feasible across countries with multiple sites. Affected patients often consume less alcohol than unaffected ones, emphasizing the existence of individual vulnerability factors. Cases are more likely to report liver disease in a father with alcohol problems than controls, consistent with a potential genetic component to the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. PMID: 25872595 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

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Simultaneous versus concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis in the national alcohol survey.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: The overall set of results is particularly important to bear in mind when studying and/or treating problems among alcohol/cannabis co-users because they demonstrate that in the general population, co-users are a heterogeneous group who experience different likelihoods of problems relative to co-use patterns. PMID: 25872596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Alcohol cues impair learning inhibitory signals in beer drinkers.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: When alcohol cues are present, there is a reduced ability to learn that such information is irrelevant to an outcome, and this impairs ones' ability to inhibit perseveration of a response. This has implications for persistence of a drinking episode. PMID: 25872597 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Social anxiety and peer helping in adolescent addiction treatment.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and lifetime trauma. SAD was associated with higher service participation during treatment, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse and incarceration in the 6 months posttreatment. Findings indicate the benefits of service participation for juveniles with SAD which provides a nonjudgmental, task-focused venue for developing sober networks in the transition back into the community. PMID: 25872598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

Brief motivational interventions for college student drinking may not be as powerful as we think: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - April 17, 2015 - 1:20am
CONCLUSIONS: This study questions the efficacy and magnitude of effects of BMIs for college drinking prevention and intervention and suggests a need for the development of more effective intervention strategies. PMID: 25872599 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

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