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The Secret Shame of Domestic Violence

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 23, 2014 - 11:10am
Domestic abuse is a secret shame that can ruin lives. Let the truth heal you.read more (Source: Psychology Today Addiction Center)

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Avoid Buprenorphine Detox for Prescription Opioid AddictionAvoid Buprenorphine Detox for Prescription Opioid Addiction

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 23, 2014 - 10:58am
Patients with prescription opioid dependence are less likely to be abstinent with tapering of buprenorphine therapy than with ongoing maintenance, US researchers demonstrate. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines)

Giving the Brain a Buzz: The Ultimate in Self-Help or a Dangerous Distraction?

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 23, 2014 - 7:00am
This blog is the fourth in a series of guest posts on technology and the brain to celebrate Scientific American Mind’s 10-year anniversary. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)

Investigation of Cross-Species Translatability of Pharmacological MRI in Awake Nonhuman Primate - A Buprenorphine Challenge Study.

Pub Med: Keyword Buprenorphine - October 23, 2014 - 6:30am

Investigation of Cross-Species Translatability of Pharmacological MRI in Awake Nonhuman Primate - A Buprenorphine Challenge Study.

PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110432

Authors: Seah S, Asad AB, Baumgartner R, Feng D, Williams DS, Manigbas E, Beaver JD, Reese T, Henry B, Evelhoch JL, Chin CL

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) is a neuroimaging technique where drug-induced hemodynamic responses can represent a pharmacodynamic biomarker to delineate underlying biological consequences of drug actions. In most preclinical studies, animals are anesthetized during image acquisition to minimize movement. However, it has been demonstrated anesthesia could attenuate basal neuronal activity, which can confound interpretation of drug-induced brain activation patterns. Significant efforts have been made to establish awake imaging in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP). Whilst various platforms have been developed for imaging awake NHP, comparison and validation of phMRI data as translational biomarkers across species remain to be explored.
METHODOLOGY: We have established an awake NHP imaging model that encompasses comprehensive acclimation procedures with a dedicated animal restrainer. Using a cerebral blood volume (CBV)-based phMRI approach, we have determined differential responses of brain activation elicited by the systemic administration of buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg i.v.), a partial µ-opioid receptor agonist, in the same animal under awake and anesthetized conditions. Additionally, region-of-interest analyses were performed to determine regional drug-induced CBV time-course data and corresponding area-under-curve (AUC) values from brain areas with high density of µ-opioid receptors.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In awake NHPs, group-level analyses revealed buprenorphine significantly activated brain regions including, thalamus, striatum, frontal and cingulate cortices (paired t-test, versus saline vehicle, p<0.05, n = 4). This observation is strikingly consistent with µ-opioid receptor distribution depicted by [6-O-[11C]methyl]buprenorphine ([11C]BPN) positron emission tomography imaging study in baboons. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with previous buprenorphine phMRI studies in humans and conscious rats which collectively demonstrate the cross-species translatability of awake imaging. Conversely, no significant change in activated brain regions was found in the same animals imaged under the anesthetized condition.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the utility and importance of awake NHP imaging as a translational imaging biomarker for drug research.

PMID: 25337714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Long-term agonist and antagonist therapy for adolescent opioid dependence: a description of two cases.

Pub Med: Keyword Buprenorphine - October 23, 2014 - 6:30am

Long-term agonist and antagonist therapy for adolescent opioid dependence: a description of two cases.

Indian J Psychol Med. 2014 Oct;36(4):439-43

Authors: Ranjan R, Pattanayak RD, Dhawan A

Abstract
Adolescents constitute only a small percentage of treatment seekers in drug dependence treatment settings. Little research evidence is available for pharmacological treatment of adolescent opioid dependence and no prior case report is available from India. We discuss two adolescent patients with opioid (heroin) dependence visiting a tertiary care center who have been stabilized on agonist (sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone) and antagonist (oral naltrexone) respectively for a substantial period of time. A comprehensive management approach, including intensive psychosocial interventions and family involvement, was followed in addition to pharmacotherapies. More research is needed on the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in adolescent opioid users.

PMID: 25336782 [PubMed]

Sexual dysfunction in patients with alcohol and opioid dependence.

Pub Med: Keyword Buprenorphine - October 23, 2014 - 6:30am

Sexual dysfunction in patients with alcohol and opioid dependence.

Indian J Psychol Med. 2014 Oct;36(4):355-65

Authors: Grover S, Mattoo SK, Pendharkar S, Kandappan V

Abstract
There are limited numbers of studies which have evaluated the sexual dysfunction (SD) in patients with alcohol and opioids dependence. This article reviews the existing literature. Electronic searches were carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect to locate the relevant literature. Subjects addicted to heroin or on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) show higher rates of SD in comparison to the general population. SD rates have ranged 34-85% for heroin addicts, 14-81% for MMT, 36-83% for BMT, and 90% for naltrexone maintenance. The rates of SD in alcohol-dependent population have ranged 40-95.2%, with rates being consistently much higher in alcohol-dependent population than in the healthy controls or social drinkers. The common SDs reported have been erectile dysfunction followed by premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation and decreased sexual desire among men, and dyspareunia and vaginal dryness among women. This review suggests that long-term use of alcohol and opioids are associated with SD in almost all domains of sexual functioning. There is a need to increase the awareness of clinicians about this association as many times SD in patients with substance abuse lead to poor treatment compliance and relapse. Further, there is a need to carry out more number of studies to understand the relationship in a better way.

PMID: 25336765 [PubMed]

Eyes on the Prize

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 23, 2014 - 5:01am
One of the most basic structural characteristics that may determine whether someone gambles on a particular type of game in the first place is the size of the jackpot that a game has to offer. But do big jackpots stimulate people to gamble? And if people win a huge jackpot, does it make them happy?read more (Source: Psychology Today Addiction Center)

Health Behaviors and Related Demographic Factors among Korean Adolescents

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
Conclusion As the result suggested, gender, religion, grade level, and region need to be considered when designing health promotion interventions among Korean adolescents. (Source: Asian Nursing Research)

‘Wide‐awake drunkenness’? Investigating the association between alcohol intoxication and stimulant use in the night‐time economy

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsWhile stimulant use does not predict BAC in and of itself, stimulants users are more likely to engage in prolonged sessions of heavy alcohol consumption and a range of risk‐taking behaviours on a night out, which may explain higher levels of BAC among stimulants users, at least in the initial stages of the drinking session. (Source: Addiction)

Valsartan Blocked Alcohol‐Induced, Toll‐Like Receptor 2 Signaling‐Mediated Inflammation in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsTLR2 signaling‐mediated alcohol induced inflammatory response in human vascular epithelial cells in vitro, which was inhibited by valsartan. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

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Repeated Ethanol Exposure During Early and Late Adolescence: Double Dissociation of Effects on Waiting and Choice Impulsivity

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsOur observations suggest a direct effect of IEE during adolescence on waiting and choice impulsivity and attention later in life. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

Ethanol Supports Macrophage Recruitment and Reinforces Invasion and Migration of Lewis Lung Carcinoma

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsData show that EtOH induced M2 phenotype macrophages, suggesting that progression and metastasis of LLC may be mediated by recruitment of M2 macrophages, especially under the influence of EtOH. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

Predictors of Abstinence from Heavy Drinking During Treatment in COMBINE and External Validation in PREDICT

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsThe most reliable predictors of abstinence from heavy drinking were CDA and drinking goal. Trees provide binary decision rules and straightforward graphical representations for identification of subgroups based on response and may be easier to implement in clinical settings. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

In With the Old and Out With the New? A Comparison of the Old and New Binge Drinking Standards

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsThese empirically based results suggest that the original binge standard without a time qualifier may be preferable to the 2‐hour standard as a marker for risk. The findings also suggest that further efforts are needed to identify a brief measure that effectively captures drinking to intoxication and related risk for negative consequences. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

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Predictors of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsThe course of prior episodes of AWS is the most reliable predictor of subsequent episodes. Thrombocytopenia and hypokalemia also correlate with SAWS. We propose further research into drinking patterns, gender, and medical comorbidities. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

Cocaine Influences Alcohol‐Seeking Behavior and Relapse Drinking in Alcohol‐Preferring (P) Rats

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
ConclusionsThe enhanced expression of EtOH‐seeking and EtOH‐relapse behaviors may be a result of a priming effect of cocaine on neuronal circuits mediating these behaviors. The effect of cocaine on EtOH‐relapse drinking is indicative of the complex interactions that can occur between drugs of abuse; production of conflicting behaviors (immediate), and priming of relapse/seeking (4‐hour delay). (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)

Early abstinence of crack-cocaine is effective to attenuate oxidative stress and to improve antioxidant defences

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 7:00pm
Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that drug rehabilitation treatment was effective in decreasing oxidative damage represented by the reduction in biological markers, which are closely related to the severity of withdrawal symptoms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)

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Community-onset bacteraemia of unknown origin: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and outcome

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 11:53am
Abstract Bacteraemia of unknown origin is prevalent and has a high mortality rate. However, there are no recent reports focusing on this issue. From 2005 to 2011, all episodes of community onset bacteraemia of unknown origin (CO-BSI), diagnosed at a 700-bed university hospital were prospectively included. Risk factors for Enterobactericeae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCR-E), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp, and predictors of mortality were assessed by logistic regression. Out of 4,598 consecutive episodes of CO-BSI, 745 (16.2 %) were of unknown origin. Risk factors for S. aureus were male gender (OR 2.26; 1.33–3.83), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.71; 1.01–2.91) and intravenous drug addiction (OR 17.24; 1.47–202); for P. aerug...

Translational nutritional nuggets

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 11:00am
Key take-home messages from the 2014 American College of Nutrition’s annual conference (Source: Alliance for Natural Health)

Parkinson's disease drugs can turn patients into gamblers, sex addicts and compulsive shoppers

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 22, 2014 - 8:52am
The drugs were 277 times more likely to result in impulse control symptoms than other drugs, say researchers at the Institute for Safe Medication Practices in Virginia. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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