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What To Eat Now: the pros and cons of caffeine

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 20, 2014 - 3:48am
As nutrition expert Ian Marber goes cold turkey on his own caffeine addiction, he reminds us of the counter-effects of caffeine (Source: The Telegraph : Health Advice)

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MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 7:00pm
Abstract NASADAD Releases State Guidance for Adolescent Treatment Services Facilities Seeking Medicaid Must Learn Nuances of Managed Care Chain of Mass. Bupe Clinics Focuses on Quality, Payers Role of Alcohol in Rx Opioid/Benzo ODs and ED Visits: CDC SMART Recovery Focuses on Non‐12‐Step Recovery Briefly Noted Names in the News Coming up (Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)

[Dual diagnosis in anxiety disorders: pharmacologic treatment recommendations].

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
Authors: Sáiz Martínez PA, Jimenez Treviño L, Díaz Mesa EM, García-Portilla González MP, Marina González P, Al-Halabí S, Szerman N, Bobes García J, Ruiz P Abstract Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are highly comorbid (between 18% and 37%), and such comorbidity complicates treatment and worsens prognosis (including higher suicide risk). There are not many research works on the specific pharmacologic treatment of dual comorbid anxiety disorders. Most authors recommend a simultaneous approach of both, anxiety and substance use, disorders. Research data on pharmacotherapy suggest that psychotropics used in the treatment of anxiety disorders are also effective in dual diagnosis. SSRIs are considered first-line therapy in the treatment of dual anxiety while benzodia...

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Duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among European adolescents.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences amon...

Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexter...

Craving and nicotine withdrawal in a Spanish smoking cessation sample.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
Authors: Piñeiro B, López-Durán A, Fernández Del Río E, Martínez U, H Brandon T, Becoña E Abstract Craving and nicotine withdrawal syndrome (NWS) are components of the tobacco use disorder in DSM-5. They both appear after smoking cessation or an abrupt reduction in tobacco use, and they are associated with both short and long-term smoking-cessation outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of craving and withdrawal with smoking cessation at the end of the treatment and relapse at 3 months follow-up in a Spanish sample of smokers. The sample comprised 342 smokers (37.7% men; 62.3% women) receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The assessments of craving and withdrawal were conducted using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal ...

[Neuropsychological performance and demographiccharacteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluat...

Sexual risk behaviors in non-injecting substance-dependent Brazilian patients.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
This study seeks to evaluate sexual risk behaviors in non-injecting substance-dependent patients admitted for specialized inpatient Brazilian care. A cross-sectional study using socio-demographic and sexual behavior information, drug of choice, Short Alcohol Dependence Data, Drug Abuse Screening, and Test for Nicotine Dependence was used in 299 subjects with different levels of sexual vulnerability as measured by the number of sexual partners in the last year and the frequency of condom use with intercourse/penetration. The findings showed that approximately 39% the subjects of the high risk sexual behavior group exhibited a higher prevalence of others sexual risk behaviors, including having sex with sex workers (RP=1.96), homosexual experiences, and homosexual experiences in exchange for ...

Alcohol related brain damage. State of the art and a call for action.

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 19, 2014 - 3:30pm
Authors: Soler González C, Balcells Oliveró M, Gual Solé A PMID: 25314035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Adicciones)

Effects of alcohol on chemokine signaling activity during bone fracture repair

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Alcohol abuse is associated with bone fracture nonunion or delayed union. Previous studies in our laboratory using a rodent tibia fracture model demonstrated that alcohol exposure inhibits external callus formation. Recruitment of stem cells to the fracture site during the inflammatory phase of fracture repair is critical for the formation of this cartilaginous callus. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of episodic alcohol exposure on the inflammatory phase of fracture healing and the production of chemotactic factors such as osteopontin (OPN) and Stromal Cell derived Factor (SDF-1) that play a role in fracture repair. (Source: Alcohol)

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Effects of binge alcohol consumption on demethylating enzyme activity in adolescent male rats

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Alcohol consumption among adolescents often occurs in a binge pattern, where the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is raised above 0.08% in 2 hours, and can lead to increased risk of depression and suicide in adulthood. We and others have demonstrated dysfunction of the physiological stress response along with altered gene expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in adult rats that had been exposed to binge-pattern alcohol consumption during adolescence. (Source: Alcohol)

Alcohol consumption amplifies immune suppression induced by ultraviolet radiation

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune-mediated, multisystem, inflammatory disorder that effects approximately 2% of the population. While psoriasis is not considered lethal, comorbidities include metabolic syndrome, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, depression, poor self-esteem, and self-destructive habits such as obesity, smoking and excess alcohol consumption. Moderate to severe psoriasis correlates with an increased risk of death, with heavy alcohol use acting as a major contributor to this excessive mortality. (Source: Alcohol)

Chronic ethanol consumption alters intestinal microbiota impairing immune function

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
It is well known that chronic alcohol consumption leads to significant organ damage and increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections resulting in higher morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, ethanol exposure in the intestinal lumen alters bacterial metabolism leading to disruption of the mucosal barrier. An increased intestinal permeability further leads to translocation of gut-derived endotoxins causing inflammatory responses in the liver that contribute to alcoholic liver disease. (Source: Alcohol)

Alcohol intoxication increases post burn Kupffer Cell p38 MAPK signaling

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its high association with traumatic injury represents a growing clinical problem for which there lacks appropriate evidence-based therapies. The need for distinct management strategies when alcohol intoxication precedes an injury is highlighted by clinical and animal studies demonstrating unique physiologic responses to burn injury in the presence of alcohol and subsequent worsened morbidity and mortality. In addition to increasing post burn intestinal permeability, alcohol is known to sensitize Kupffer cells in the liver to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), creating a situation where both the stimulus and inflammatory reaction to gut-derived LPS is increased. (Source: Alcohol)

Impaired function of the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor: Its role in alcoholic liver inflammation

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Alcohol-induced alterations in cell function, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis are prominent features of liver disease. The link between these processes, however, remains unclear. A virtually universal characteristic of liver injury and subsequent inflammation is the induction of hepatocellular damage, and work from our laboratory has extensively studied the effect of ethanol administration on the hepatocyte and the process of endocytosis by these cells, using the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) pathway as a model. (Source: Alcohol)

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Myeloid gp96 is crucial to alcohol-induced adipose tissue inflammation

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
A role for adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has recently been recognized. Recent studies show a correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and liver injury in human ALD. However, the role of macrophages in adipose tissue in the development of ALD remains unclear. Stress-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glycoprotein 96 (gp96, GRP94, HSP90β1) is crucial in the maintenance of macrophage function; myeloid cells lacking gp96 do not express toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the cell surface. (Source: Alcohol)

High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) participates in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD)

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Growing clinical and experimental evidence suggest that sterile inflammation contributes to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is highly induced during liver injury; yet, a link between this alarmin and ALD has not been established. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine whether HMGB1 contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD. Liver biopsies from patients with ALD showed a robust increase in HMGB1 expression and translocation, which correlated with disease stage, compared to healthy explants. (Source: Alcohol)

Effect of intoxication and burn on claudin and occludin expression in epithelial cells from the small and large intestine

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
In this study, we examined the expression of claudins and occludin in intestinal epithelial cells after alcohol and burn injury. (Source: Alcohol)

Alcohol mediates inhibition of organic dust-stimulated airway epithelial cell TNF alpha through nitric oxide and PKC mediated inhibition of ADAM17

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Studies show that farm workers in rural areas consume more alcohol than those who reside in urban areas. The airways are continuously exposed to various pollutants on a daily basis. Occupational exposures such as agricultural work can pose hazards on the respiratory system. The dust that accumulates in swine confinement facilities can cause adverse respiratory effects. We have established that hog barn dust induces inflammation in the airway including the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). (Source: Alcohol)

Antiretroviral therapy attenuates dysregulated hematopoiesis caused by chronic binge alcohol and SIV infection in rhesus macaques

MedWorm Addiction Feeds - October 18, 2014 - 7:42pm
Hematopoiesis is important in sustaining host defense. Chronic binge alcohol (CBA) impairs hematopoiesis by negatively affecting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function and frequency in bone marrow (BM). Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causes immunosuppression. Some antiretroviral drugs have been shown to be toxic to BM. We hypothesized that CBA administration prior to and throughout SIV infection would impair hematopoiesis by decreasing HSPC frequency, and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) may exacerbate this impairment. (Source: Alcohol)

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